THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND NIGERIA’S NATIONAL SECURITY
Keywords:External environment, national security, trans border crime, cybercrime, arms proliferation
AbstractNation-states in the contemporary global system face a variety of threats that challenge not only their national security, but also the continued existence of the state as a sovereign entity. Historically, the enemies of the state were from the external environment. However, the security environment in the world today has undergone rapid and constant change. Globalisation has increasingly led to domestication of the external environment, on the one hand, and externalisation of the domestic environment, on the other, thereby blurring the boundaries between the domestic and the external. Global security issues such as terrorism, illegal migration, cybercrime, trafficking of drugs, arms and persons, exemplify the inseparability of internal and external security environments. This has further compounded the security complex of nation-states, since the external enemies of the state now infiltrate domestic actors and effectively use them against the state. Against this background, the Nigerian state, like the case in other developing countries with fledging state institutions, has come under serious security threat. This situation requiires comprehensive threat assessment and proactive frameworkof deterrence and containment. This paper examines the challenge of national security in a world of infinite access and unpredictable penetration.
Adu Boahen, A. ed. 1985 General History Of Africa- VII Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935 Berkeley: University of California Press
Anderson, B. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.
Anumba-Khaleel, K., 2017. DSS Fingers Security Agents in Arms Proliferation November 13, 2017 Leadership: https://leadership.ng/2017/11/13/dss-fingers-security-agents-arms-proliferation/
Ashcroft, B., Gareth G. and Tiffin, H 1998. Post-colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. London and New York: Routledge.
Azimazi M. J. and Oludare R., 2017 West Africans import $35 million small arms yearly, says UN The Guardian 08 December 2017 https://guardian.ng/news/west-africans-import-35-million-small-arms-yearly-says-un/Chawki, M. 2005. A Critical Look at the Regulation of Cybercrime. Available at http://www.droit-tic.com/pdf/chawk14.pdf
BBC 2008 "Plastic card fraud goes back up". 12 March 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7289856.stm
Caute, D. 1978. The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Chawki, M. 2005. A Critical Look at the Regulation of Cybercrime. Available at http://www.droit-tic.com/pdf/chawk14.pdf
Crenshaw, M. 2006. “The Causes of Terrorism”, in O’Neil P.H. and Rogowski, R. eds. Essentials of Comparative Politics. 2nd edn. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Destinationnigeria 2010, ‘cyberterrorism hits Nigeria’ extracted via http://newafricanpress.com/2010/09/25/cyber-terrorism-hits-nigeria/
Ebenstein, A. 2002. Introduction to Political Thinkers. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth
European Convention on Human Rights, 2001 https://www.oireachtas.ie/documents/bills28/bills/2001/2601/b2601.pdf
EFCCNigeria.org, ‘288 jailed for Internet fraud’ extracted via http://www.efccnigeria.org/20120416_288%20Jailed.html
Executive Summary, IC3 2010 Internet Crime Report, available at http://www.ic3.gov/media/annualreport/2010_IC3Report.pdf
Fleshman, M. 2011 Small Arms In Africa Counting The Cost Of Gun Violence Africa Renewal: December 2011
Fried, R. M. 1990. Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gat, A. 2006. War in Human Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldsmith,J. and Wu, T. 2006. Who Controls the Internet, Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford Press
Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. 2011 Cyber crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global.
Hobson, J. M. and Hobden, S. eds. 2002. Historical Sociology of International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman, B.. 1998 Inside Terrorism New York: Columbia University Press.
Holy, L. 2010. “A net neutrality compromise harms privacy, spreads cybercrime,” Technorati (31 August), at http://technorati.com/technology/article/a-net-neutrality-compromise-harms-privacy/, accessed 28 October 2017.
Huntington, S. 1996. The Clash of Civilisation and Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Idahosa, O. 2015 Boko Haram and the Nigerian State: a Different Perspective Glocalism. Journal of Culture, Politics and Innovation Issue 2015, 3
Jeyifo, B. 2007. ‘In the wake of Colonialism and Modernity’ in Olaniyan, T. and Quayson, A. eds. African Literature: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory. London: Blackwell Publishers.
Gaskin, J.C.A (ed.) 1998 Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gottschalk, P., 2010 Policing Cyber Crime Bookboon,com http://library.ku.ac.ke/wp-content/downloads/2011/08/Bookboon/IT,Programming%20and%20Web/policing-cyber-crime.pdf
Kant, I. 1795 Perpetual Peace: ‘A Philosophical Sketch' Berkeley nColumbia University Press https://slought.org/media/files/perpetual_peace.pdf
Le Beau, John J.ed. 2013. The Dangerous Landscape: International Perspectives on Twenty-First Century Terrorism; Transnational Challenge, International Responses The Partnership for Peace Consortium’s Combating Terrorism Working Group (CTWG) http://www.procon.bg/
Lizardo, O. 2008 Defining and Theorizing Terrorism: A Global Actor-Centered Approach Journal of World-Systems Research, XIV(2), 91-118
Nye, J.S. 2011. The Future of Power. New York: Public Affairs.
Okeke, V.O.S & Oji, R. O. 2014 The Nigerian State and the Proliferation Small Arm and Light Weapons in the Northern Part of Nigeria Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(1)
Okeke ,V. O, S,, Oji & Okechukwu, R . 2014. Cross Border Crimes in West African Sub- Region: Implications for Nigeria’s National Security and External Relations Global Journal of Human-Social Science: F Political Science https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume14/5-Cross-Border-Crimes-in-West-African.pdf Volume 14 Issue 3 Version 1.0
Okiro, M. 2005. Proliferation of Illegal Arms and Ethno-Religious Violence in Nigeria. Alemika, E.O. and Chukwuma, I.C. Crime and Policing in Nigeria: Challenges and Options. Network on Police Reform in Nigeria.
Onuoha, F.C. 2011. ‘Small Arms and Light Weapons Proliferation and Human Security in Nigeria’ Conflict Trend (1), 50-56
Osimen, G. U, Anegbode, E. J., Akande, C. A,& Oyewole, O. O 2017 The Borderless-Border and Internal Security Challenges in Nigeria. International Journal of Political Science, 3(3), 17-27
Paleri, P. 2008. National Security: Imperatives and Challenges . New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
PC World 2008. ‘Microsoft combats cybercrime in Nigeria’ extracted via http://www.pcworld.com/article/152784/nigeria_cybercrime.html
Pogoson, A. I. 2013. Nigeria’s National Security in an Age of Terrorism Ibadan Department of Political Science
Pong, D. 2017. The Fall of the Qing, 1840-1912 http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199920082/obo-9780199920082-0029.xml
Poulsen, K. 2004 South Pole 'cyberterrorist' hack wasn't the first Threat over-egged The Registrar, 19 August
Premaratne, U. 2016. Reconciling the Irreconcilable: The Use of Reasonable Consequentialism for the Conundrum of National Security and Fundamental Rights. KDU International Research Conference 2016.Cited in Joshua James Climate Change And National Security Analysis Of The New Zealand Defence White Paper 2016 And The Effect Climate Change Will Have On New Zealand’s National Security http://hdl.handle.net/10063/6222
Roach, M. L. 2012. Boko Haram: Addressing the threat before it strikes. Issue brief 3549. Washington, D.C., The Heritage Foundation. pp. 1-4. Available from: <http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?rls=1T4NDKB_enTR519TR519&q=cache:emCTwWAIdR0J:http://thf_media.s3.amasonaws.com/2012/pdf/ib3549.pdf%2BRoach,+M.+L.,+2012.+Boko+Haram:+Addressing+the+Threat+before+It+Strikes&hl=tr&ct=clnk>
Ripsman, N. M., and T. V. P. 2010). Globalization and the National Security State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Romm, J. J. 1993. Defining National Security: The Nonmilitary Aspects. Pew Project on America's Task in a Changed World (Pew Project Series). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
Saharareporters 2012. ‘Tompolo: The Millionaire Militant’ extracted via http://saharareporters.com/news-page/tompolo-billionaire-militant-thenews-africa
Seniora, J. and Poitevin, C. 2010, Managing Land Borders and the Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons Groupe de recherche et d'information sur la paix et la sécurité (GRIP) http://www.nonproliferation.eu/web/documents/other/jihansenioraandcedricpoitevin4f71888d11286.pdf
Scherer, L. S. 2010. National Security. Detroit: Greenhaven Press
Schrecker, E. 1998. Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Boston: Little, Brown..
Shaw, M. 2005. International Law. Cambridge University Press
Silva, A. 2016. Early Beginnings of Holy Roman Rule: Church Politics in the Sustaining of the Western Empire (4th-8th Centuries) https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/163229/Master%20Thesis_Andre%20Silva_014414734.pdf?sequence=2
Strong, A. L. 1941. The Soviets Expected It. New York, New York: The Dial Press
Strong, A. L. 1956 The Stalin Era. New York: Mainstream
Teichman, J. 1989 How to Define Terrorism Philosophy, Vol. 64, No. 250 (Oct.)
Tiimonen, H. and Nikander, M. 2016 Interdependence of Internal and External Security Will the Operational Culture Change With The Operational Environment? Finland: Ministry of Interior Publication 37.
This Day Live 2012, ‘Growing menace of cybercrime’ extracted via http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/growing-menace-of-cybercrime/125466/
The Associated Press. 2009 A look at Estonia’s Cyber Attack in 2007 http://www.nbcnews.com/id/31801246/ns/technology_and_science-security/t/look-estonias-cyber-attack/#.Wr6frcYwjIU
The Guardian, Editorial Board 26 November 2017 When security agencies sell arms to criminals https://guardian.ng/opinion/when-security-agencies-sell-arms-to-criminals/
The Guardian, 2018 The influx of small arms, light weapons 22 February 2018 https://guardian.ng/opinion/the-influx-of-small-arms-light-weapons/
The Nigerian Tribune, 2018 21 Million Guns, Ammo Smuggled Into Nigeria —Investigation January 21, 2018 http://www.tribuneonlineng.com/21-million-guns-ammo-smuggled-nigeria-investigation/
Thucydides & Crawley, William, 1840-1893 (1951). The Peloponnesian War. Modern Library, New York
Trombetta, M. J. 2008 Environmental Security And Climate Change: Analysing The Discourse, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21:4, 585-602:
UNITED NATIONS 2005. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Vienna Transnational Organized Crime in the West African Region https://www.unodc.org/pdf/transnational_crime_west-africa-05.pdf
Valls A. 2000. ‘Can Terrorism Be Justified’ Pojman L. P Political Philosophy: Classis and Contemporary Readings (pp. 563-572). NY: McGraw Hill.
Vanguard 2011 A-L-A-R-M-I-N-G 124 policemen in Lagos killed by bandits in 9 months https://www.vanguardngr.com/2011/11/a-l-a-r-m-i-n-g-124-policemen-in-lagos-killed-by-bandits-in-9-months/
Wada, F. & Odulaja, G. O. 2012)Assessing Cyber Crime and its Impact on E-Banking in Nigeria Using Social Theories. African Journal of Computing & ICT. Vol 5. No. 1. pp 69-82.
Walker, A. What Is Boko Haram? 2012 by the United States Institute of Peace. Special Report https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/SR308.pdf
Waltz, K. 1979. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Warner, Z. 2012. The Sad Rise of Boko Haram. New African, 01 April,
Watson, C. A. (2008). U.S. National Security: A Reference Handbook . Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
Zimbio 2012, ‘Cyberterrorist hack defence Headquarters and Navy websites’ extracted via http://www.zimbio.com/Nigeria+Today/articles/XAs8P5ETosA/Cyber+terrorist+hack+Defence+Headquarters
USC 7101: Purposes and findings: From Title 22-Foreign Relations and Intercourse Chapter 78-Trafficking Victims Protection http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:22%20section:7101%20edition:prelim)
Copyright is owned by the journal.