• Folake Ganiyat ADELEKE
  • Abel OLALEYE


Housing Affordability, Household Income, Housing Expenditure, Income Ratio Measure, Lagos State


Studies have established that affordable housing provision remains an intractable problem facing low income earners in most nations of the world. Literature have focused more on various aspects of housing affordability, than the measurement of its level among households. This study therefore examines the affordability capability of low income civil servants in Lagos State, Nigeria. The rule of thumb concept was used to anchor the study utilizing a case study research design, sourcing both primary and secondary data. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 188 questionnaires were administered to respondents on grade levels 1 to 6 drawn from 124 out of 620 randomly selected offices in 16 ministries in the state. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ratio analysis and inferential statistics at p value ≤ 0.05. The result showed that 50% of the respondents were male and female respectively, 71.5% were married, 22.8% were single while 1.9% were divorcees and separated respectively. Majority of the respondents (57.7%) were young adults earning an average monthly income of N30,002. Also, 14.2%, 13.4%, 16.4% and 38.1% of the respondents were paying average monthly rents of N2,950, N6,200, N8,750 and N10,000 respectively. Ratio Analysis indicated that the respondents spent more than 30% of their monthly income (43.04%) on housing. The regression analysis revealed that additional income from all other sources had a significant impact on their housing affordability (F = 0.028). The study concluded that low income civil servants in the state were cost burdened and recommends an increment in the monthly minimum wage.


Abimaje, J., Akingbohungbe, D. O. & Baba, A. N. (2014). Housing Affordability in Nigerian Towns: A Case of Idah, Nigeria. International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management, 1(2), 31-38. Retrieved from http://www.eajournals.org

Afon, A. O. (2000). Use of Residents’ Environmental Quality Indicator (EQI) data in core residential housing improvement. In O. B. Akinbamijo (Ed.), Effective Housing in the 21st Century Nigeria (pp. 115-122). The Environmental Forum, Akure.

Agbola, T. (1998). The Housing of Nigerians: A Review of Policy Development and Implementation, Research Report, 14, Development Policy Centre, Ibadan.

Ajanlekoko, J. S. (2001). Sustainable housing development in Nigeria – The financial and infrastructural implication. International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from http://www.fig.net/pub/proceedings/nairobi/ajanlekoko – CMWS 1.pdf

Akeju, A. A. (2007). Challenges to Providing Affordable Housing in Nigeria. A Paper presented at the 2nd Africa International Conference on Housing Finance in Nigeria held at Sheu Yar‟adua Center Abuja, 17-19 October.

Aliyu, A. A., Kasim, R. & Martins, D. (2011). Factors Affecting Housing Development in Makama Jahun Area of Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 2(4), 263-268. Retrieved from http://www.ijtef.org/show-32-358-1.html

Andrews, N. O. (1998). Housing affordability and low-income mobility for the poor: A review of trends and strategies. Meeting America’s housing needs (mahn): A Habitat II followup project. Retrieved from http://www.Nlihc.Org/mahn/afford.Htm

Anthony, A. I., Dabara, D. I., Joseph, O., Odewande, A. G. & Agidi, O. M. (2016). Low income Residential Housing

Delivery in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Conference of the International Journal of Arts & Sciences,

(01), 15-28. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2784440

Aribigbola, A. (2000). Conceptual Issues in Housing and Housing Provision in Nigeria. In O. B. Akinbamijo, A. S. Fawehinmi, D. R. Ogunsemi & A. O. Olotuah, (Eds.), Effective Housing in 21st Century Nigeria, Environmental Forum, (pp. 1-8), Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria.

Benjamin, S. A. (2000). Housing Policy in a Federal System: Past, Present and Future. In O.B. Akinbamijo, A. S. Fawehinmi, D. R. Ogunsemi & A. O. Olotuah, (Eds.), Effective Housing in 21st Century Nigeria, Environmental Forum, (pp. 30-39), Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria.

Boamah, N. A. (2010). Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 3(3).

Bujang, A. A., Abu Zarin, H., Jumadi, N. (2010). The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Housing Affordability. Malaysian Journal of Real Estate, 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.utm.my/intrest/files/2013/08/THE-RELATIONSHIP-BETWEEN-DEMOGRAPHIC-FACTORS-AND-HOUSING-AFFORDABILITY.pdf

Cai, Z. (2017). Analyzing Measurements of Housing Affordability (Master’s thesis, University of Washington). Retrieved from https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/40314

Cassells, R., Duncan, A., Gao, G., James, A., Leong, K., Markkanen, S. & Rowley, S. (2014). Housing Affordability: The real costs of housing in WA, Focus on Western Australia Series, Issue 14/2, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre.

Central Bank of Nigeria Exchange Rates. (2017, February 18). This Day. Retrieved from https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2017/02/18/cbn-pegs-dollar-rate-for school-fees-pta-at-n375/

Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa (2016). Housing Finance in Nigeria. CAHF. Retrieved from http://housingfinanceafrica.org/countries/nigeria/

Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.nigeria-law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2011). Draft National Housing Policy. Abuja.

Goetz, S. J. (2007). The Economic Case for State Land Use Decision-Making. Special Issue on Rural Development Policy. The Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy (JRAP), 37(1), 20-24.

Gyourko, J. & Tracy, J. (1999). A look at Real Housing Prices and Incomes. Some Implications for Housing Affordability and Quality. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Economic Policy Review, September. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1007465

Harding, A., Phillips, B., & Kelly, S. (2004). Trends in Housing Stress Paper presented at the ‘National Summit on Housing Affordability’ 28 June. National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, University of Canberra. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265744860_Trends_in_Housing_Stress/link/545c29b90cf249070a7a8a9e/download

Kneebone, R., & Wilkins, M. (2016). The Very Poor and the Affordability of Housing University of Calgary, School of Public Policy Research Papers, 9(27), September. Retrieved from http://www.policyschool.ca/

Landt, J. & Bray, R. (1997). Alternative Approaches to Measuring Rental Housing Affordability in Australia Discussion Paper No.16, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra. Retrieved from http://library.bsl.org.au/jspui/bitstream/1/235/1/natsem_discussion%20paper%20no%2016.pdf

Litman, T. A. (2015). Affordable-Accessible Housing In A Dynamic City Why and How To Increase Affordable Housing Development In Accessible Locations. 27 January 2015. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.vtpi.org/aff_acc_hou.pdf

Luffman, J. (2006). Perspectives on Labour and Income- Measuring housing affordability. Statistics Canada, 7(11). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/11106/9519-eng.htm

Mostafa, A., Wong, F., K. W. & Hui, E.C.M. (1998). A Study on Housing Provision System towards Housing Affordability in Shanghai. Retrieved from http://www.iut.nu/China_Shanghai_hous%20affordability.pdf

My Destination Nigeria (2015). South West Region. Retrieved from


Ndubueze, O. O. (2007). Measuring Housing Affordability: A Composite Approach, ENHR 2007 International Conference, Sustainable Urban Areas. 25-28 June 2007.

Ndubueze, O. (2009). Urban housing affordability and the housing policy dilemmas in Nigeria (Doctoral dissertation). University of Birmingham. Retrieved from http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/298/

Nigeria Exchange (Ngex) (2013). Nigerian Constitution: Supplementary Provisions- Part IV- Interpretation, Citation and Commencement, 318. Retrieved from http://ngex.com/nigeria/constitution/con8p4p1.htm

Obi, N. I. & Ubani, O. (2014). Dynamics of Housing Affordability in Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(3), 2014. ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online). Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org

Olotuah, A. O. (2000). The Challenge of Housing in Nigeria. In O.B. Akinbamijo, A. Fawehinmi, D. R. Ogunsemi & A. O. Olotuah, (Eds.), Effective Housing in 21st Century Nigeria, Environmental Forum, (pp. 16-21), Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria.

Oshodi, L. (2010). Housing, Population and Development in Lagos. Nigeria. International Development and Urban Governance. Retrieved from http://oshlookman.wordpress.com/category/housing-and-urban-development/

Owei, O. (2007). Distortions of the Urban Land Markets in Nigerian Cities and the Implications for Urban growth

patterns; the case of Abuja and Port Harcourt, paper presented at the Fourth Urban Research

Symposium, www.Worldbank.org

Rea, W., Yuen, J., Engeland, J. & Figueroa, R. (2008). The Dynamics of Housing Affordability. Statistics Canada, Catalogue No. 75-001, January Perspectives, 15-26. Retrieved from http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/StatsCan_2008_Dynamics_of_Housing_Affordability.pdf

Rangel, G. J., NG, J. W. J., Murugasu, T. M. T. & Poon, W. C. (2017). A micro-level view of housing affordability

in Malaysia using an age cohort-housing type analysis Bandar Sunway, Malaysia: Monash University,

Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320578017_A_Microlevel_View_of_Housi ng_Affordability_in_Malaysia_Using_an_Age_Cohort-housing_Type_Analysis

Stigler, G. J. (1954). The Early History of Empirical Studies of Consumer Behaviour. Journal of Political Economy,

(2) 95-113. The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1825569

Stone, M., Burke, T., & Ralston, L. (2011). The Residual Income Approach to Housing Affordability. The Theory and the Practice. AHURI Positioning Paper No, 139, Melbourne: Australia Housing and Urban Research Institute. Retrieved from https://works.bepress.com/michael_stone/7

Wardrip, K., Williams, L. & Hague, S. (2011). The Role of Affordable housing in Creating Jobs and Stimulating Local Economic Development: A Review of the Literature. Center for Housing Policy. Retrieved from http://www2.nhc.org/media/files/Housing-and-Economic-Development-Report-2011.pdf

Woetzel, J., Ram, S., Mischke, J., Garemo, N. & Sankhe, S. (2014). Tackling the world’s affordable housing

challenge, Report - McKinsey Global Institute, October, Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/globalthemes/urbanization/tackling-the-worlds affordable-housing-challenge

World Bank (2015). World Bank Forecasts Global Poverty to Fall Below 10% for First Time; Major Hurdles Remain in Goal to End Poverty by 2030, October 4, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/10/04/world-bank-forecasts-global-poverty-to-fall-below-10-for-first-time-major-hurdles-remain-in-goal-to-end-poverty-by-2030

World Population Review (2019). Lagos Population 2019. Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/lagos-population/

Zaid, S. (2015). Is Public Low- Cost Housing in Malaysia really affordable? Measuring operational affordability of public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur. 18th International Academic Conference, London. 25th August. Retrieved from https://umexpert.um.edu.my/file/publication/00008806_129378.pdf

Zodml (2013). Nigeria Geography- Lagos State. Retrieved from http://zodml.org/Nigeria/Geography/Lagos%20State/