organizational culture, leadership style, quality of work life, organizational effectiveness.


 Given the limited understanding of the impact of organizational culture and leadership style on quality of work-life, this study investigated how organizational culture and leadership styles affect employees’ quality of work life. A total of 284(Male =182, Female=102) selected employees from private and public work organizations in Ekiti State, Nigeria participated in the study and responded to the already validated scales used in the study. As hypothesized, the study reveals that organizational culture and leadership style independently and jointly significantly influence quality of work life experience by employee with individualistic dimension of organizational culture and democratic dimension of leadership style combining to impact more positively on quality of work life. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.


Adkins, B., & Caldwell, D. (2004) Firm or subgroup culture: where does fitting in matter most? Journal of

Organizational Behaviour, 25, 969 -978

Bardoel, E. A (2003) "The provision of formal and informal workâ€family practices: the relative importance of

institutional and resource dependent explanations versus managerial explanations", Women in Management

Review, Vol. 18 : 1/2,7 - 19

Barzegar, M., Afzal, E., Tabibi, S. J. & Delgoshaei, B (2012). Relationship between Leadership Behavior, Quality of

Work Life and Human Resources Productivity: Data from Iran. International Journal of Hospital Research,


Bass, M., & Avolio, B. (1992). Developing transformational leadership 1992 and beyond.Journal of European

Industrial Training, 14, 21-37

Berg, P., Kalleber, A.L. & Appelbaum, E. (2003). Balancing work and family: The role of high-commitment

environments. Industrial Relations, 42, 168-188.

Chan, K. W. & Wyatt, T. A. (2007). Quality of work life: A study of employees in Shanghai, China. Asia Pacific

Business Review, 13,(4) 501- 517

Danna, K. & Griffin, R.W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: a review and synthesis of the literature.

Journal of Management, 25(3), 357-384

Deal, T. A & Kennedy, A. A (1982) Corporate culture. Addison- Wesley Readings. MA

Deems, T.A. (1999). Vital work: Spirit and development within the natural workplace. K. P. .Kuchinke (Ed.) 1999

Academy of Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings Arlington, VA

Dockel, A. (2003). The effects of retention factors on organizational commitment: An investigation of high technology

employees. Unpublished Thesis,University of Pretoria

Ejimofor, B.I. (1987) Organization commitment as a function of leadership styles in Nigerian organizations: A study of

three commercial banks in Lagos. Unpublished thesis, University of Lagos.

Fleishman, E.A.(1957) A Leadership Behavior Description for Industry’ In Stogdill, R.M. and Coons, E. (eds) Leader

Behavior: Its Description and Measurement Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Bureau of Business


French, W., & Bell, C. (1999).Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organizational

improvement (sixth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Goodman, E.A., Zammuto, R.F. & Gifford, B.D. (2001). The competing values framework: Understanding the impact

of organizational culture on the quality of work life. Organization Development Journal, 19, 58-68.

Harris, S. G. & Mossholder, K. W. (1996). The affective implications of perceived congruence with culture dimensions

during organizational transformation. Journal of Management, 22, 527-548

Hanges, P. J; Lord, R. G & Dickson, M. W (2000). An information processing perspectives on leadership and culture.

A case for commitment architecture. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 65, (2) 340-352.

Havlovic, S. J., (1991). Quality of work life and human resource outcomes. Industrial Relations, Vol. 30, ( 3).469-479.

Hayers, N. (2000) Leadership: Foundation of Psychology . New Jersey: Thomson Press, 509- 512.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences. CA ,Sage, Beverly Hills.

Hosfstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and Organisations: Software of the mind. USA, McGraw- Hill.

Karasek, R. A., & Theorell, T. (1990).Healthy work: stress productivity and the reconstruction of working life New

York: Basic Books.

Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L.,Chen, Z. X & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and

follower reaction to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross cultural examination. Academy of

Management Journal, 52 ,744-764

Korunka, C., Hoonakker, P. & Carayon, P. (2008). Quality of working life and turnover intention in information

technology work’, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 18(4): 409– 423.

Lewis, J. (2001). The End of Marriage? Individualism and Intimate Relations Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, DOI:


Lewin, K, Lippit, R. & White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in artificially created social climate. Journal

of Social Psychology, 10, 271-299

Lian, H., Ferris, D. L., & Brown, D. J. (2012). Does power distance exacerbate or mitigate the effect of abusive

supervision? It depends on the outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 107-123

Mosandeghard, A. M., Ferlie, E. & Rosenberg, D. (2011). A study of relationship between job stress, quality of

working life and turnover intention among hospital employees. Health Service Management Research. 24

(4), 170-181.

Ogbonna, E & Harris, L. (2000). Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: Empirical evidence

from UK companies. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 11(4), 766-788.

Omolayo, B. O (2007). Effect of leadership style on job related tension and psychological sense of community in work

organization: A case study of four organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 4

(2), 32-41

Owolabi, A. B .(2015). Work family conflict and job satisfaction as predictors of quality of work life. Advances in

Social Science Research Journal, 2, (2) 51-60.

Ravasi, D., & Schultz, M. (2006). Responding to organizational identity threats: Exploring the role of organizational

culture. Academy of Management Journal 49 (3), 433–458.

Richard, B. (2007). Predicting the organizational commitment of marketing education and health occupation

education teachers in work related rewards. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 32 (1) 1-14

Robert, C. & S.A. Wasti (2002). Organizational individualism and collectivism: Theoretical development and construct

validation. Journal of Management, 28(4), 544-566.

Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. SanFrancisco: Jossey -Bass.

Schein, E. (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sirgy, J.M., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., & Lee, D. (2001). A new Measure of Quality of Work Life (QWL) Based on Need

Satisfaction and Spillover Theories. Social Indicators Research, 55(3), 241-302.

Strivastava, A. K. (2007). Perceived work environment and employees health. Psychological Studies, 52 (4) 345-347

Smith, P.B., & Peterson, M.F. (1988). Leadership, organi-zations and culture . London: Sage.

Subrahmanian, M, & Anjani, N (2010) Construct of quality work life – A perspectives of textile and engineering

employees. Asian Journal of Management Research, 5 (2), 299-307

Warrick, D. D. (1981). Leadership styles and their consequences. Journal of Experiential Learning and Simulation 3-

: 155-172.