POLITICAL THUGGERY AND VOTERS’ TURNOUT IN FOURTH REPUBLIC'S GENERAL ELECTIONS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

Gbadebo Fatai ADELEKE

Abstract


The use of political thugs during electoral process has become an institutionalised phenomenon in Nigeria's democratisation process especially in the Fourth Republic (1999-2015). Past studies had little empirical investigation on thuggery-voters' turnout in specific geographical zone, however, this study examined the use of thugs and voters' turnout in the Southwestern, Nigeria. The theory of Social Exchange provided the analytical framework. Questionnaire was administered to 1504 (Public-office holders:201, Parties' candidates:317, Party-agents:76, Voters:908)  respondents, 55 (Passive-voters:30, Independent National Electoral Commission officials:15, Police and Security officers: 10) respondents were interviewed and records were sought. Majority respondents agreed that thugs drove vehicles recklessly to scare voters in opponents' popular communities (65.7%) and thugs snatched ballot boxes and intimidated voters (61.9%). Also, 70.4% of the respondents said that majority of the thugs and security agents were cordial. The paper revealed that thugs were hired to engage in all electoral offences and fear of death and psychological instability had negative effects on voters' turnout. The paper concludes that thugs led major campaigns and engaged in many electoral offences. There is a need for a 5-year transfer of security agents from a station and the establishment of mobile courts is necessary to trial electoral offenders.

Keywords


Political thuggery, Voters' Turnout, Fourth republic, General elections, Southwestern

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abba, A., 2004. Violence and Election in Nigeria: Problems and Solutions. Paper presented at Centre for Democratic Development, Research and Training, CEDDERT, Zaria

Achyuta, A. and Fenske, J. 2013. 'War, Resilience and Political Engagement in Africa,' CSAE Working Paper Series 2013-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford Publication (81-94).

Adedoyin, A. 2011. Development and Security in Nigeria Democratic Dispensation. In proceedings of 16th

Annual Conference of Anthropological and Sociological Association of Nigeria (ASAN) held at the University

of Ilorin, Ilorin-Nigeria.

Adeleke, F.G. 2016. Influence of Dimensional Incentives on Voters’ Turnout in 2014 and 2015 Gubernatorial

Elections in Southwestern, Nigeria. International Journal of Community Research 5(3)

Asiegbu, T. 2011. Nigerian Youth and Political Thuggery htt://www.helium.com/knowledge/285548-nigeria-

youths-and- political-thuggery.

Balogun T. 2009. Nigeria: Electoral Violence and National Security. Accessed on www.http:/aceprotect.org/accessibility-info. Last visited day: 26/10/2010.

Chika, P. and Onyene, V. 2010. Youth Restiveness in the Niger Delta of Nigeria: Implication for Education and

Leadership. European Journal of Social Sciences 18 (2) 286-296.

Chikezie, C. and Ikemitan, S. 2011. Insecurity as a Threat to National Development. In Pilot Daily Newspaper,

March.

Cook, K. and Emerson, R. 1978. Power Equity and Commitment in Exchange Networks. American Sociological

Review (43)739.

Federal Republic of Nigeria 2011. The Electoral Reform of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja: The

Federal Government Printer.

Green, P. and Gerber, A. 2008. Get out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. 2nd (ed.) Washington, DC:

Brookings Institution Press.

Held, D. 2006. Models of Democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Howell, R. 2004. Political Thuggery in Vogue. Chicago: L and T Press Ltd.

Isa, A., 2008. Political Thuggery and Good Governance in Borno State (1999-2007). Being a dissertation

submitted to the Department of Public Administration, University of Maiduguri, for the award of M.Sc

Degree in Public Administration

Independent National Electoral Commission, 2011. Voter Apathy and the 2011 Elections in Nigeria. A

Research Report Commissioned by INEC and the Friedrich- Elbert- Stiftung (FES), Abuja.

Independent National Electoral Commission, 2013. Manual for Election Officials; Abuja

Independent National Electoral Commission, 2015. The Official Report on the 2015 General Election:

www.inecnigeria.org. Abuja, Nigeria.

Jibrin, I. 2007. The Rise of Nigeria’s Political Godfathers. BBC Focus on Africa Magazine, November 10, 2003,

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3156540.stm (accessed July 12, 2007).

Lohor, J. 2002. Nigeria: Aliero Identifies Causes of Political Thuggery. This Day, 8 June.

Molm, L., Peterson, G. and Takahashi, N. 1999. Power in Negotiated and Reciprocal Exchange. American

Sociological Review (6) 876-890.

Ndu, A. 2000. The Role of Family in Managing Indiscipline among Youths in Nigeria. Journal of Counselling

Psychology. 1, 45 – 51

Oladimeji, D. and Ezea, S. 2014. INEC has no Hidden Agenda in more Polling units, says Jega, The Guardian,

Thursday, October 23, pp 1-2.

Omotoso, K. 2012. One Party State in the South West, Sunday Sun, February 11, p.9.

Oni A. 2015. Thuggery and Violence in Bendel. Newspaper Company Limited, Nigerian Observer, April 14.

Onyekpe, N. 2007. Managing Youth at Election. The Constitution: A Journal of Constitutional Development 7 (1):

-87

Onwuemenyi O. 2011. Post- Elections Survey Lays Bare Frailties of 2011 Polls. Vanguard June, 20.

Transitional Monitoring Group, 2008. Federal Election Commission via National Voter Turnout in Federal Elections: 1960-2008. http//www.infoplease.com/ipa/a0781453.html.

Turner, J. 1998. The Structure of Sociological Theory. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Wolf, R. 1969. On the Violence. Journal of Philosophy (5) 12-27.

Yusuf, S. 2001. Youths and National Orientation. In A.A. Adegoke (Ed.) proceeding of the 25th National Conference

of the Counselling Association of Nigeria 11 – 15.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.