INFLUENCE OF GENDER, AGE AND JOB TENURE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF MEDICAL AND NON-MEDICAL EMPLOYEES OF A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
Keywords:Age, Gender, Job Tenure, Medical & Non Medical Hospital Staff, Job Satisfaction
AbstractThe role of employees in ensuring a high level of firm performance advantage cannot be over-emphasised. Employees that are satisfied with their job are expected to exert required effort to ensure effective and timely achievement of organisational goals and objectives. Hospitals in Nigeria are heavily under-funded and under-equipped while the employees are under-paid, hence the incessant strikes and agitation. Owing to the salient nature of the life saving responsibilities of hospitals, particularly University Teaching Hospitals, it is imperative to study and understand the job satisfaction of the employees who implement these responsibilities and how demographic factors can determine job satisfaction. This study examined the influence that age, gender and job tenure as demographic variables, have on the job satisfaction of medical and non-medical employees at a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A sample size of 220 was selected out of the 605 employees in the University Teaching Hospital in Lagos State. The principal instrument used was the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and a section for demographic data collection. The t- test for independent samples and ANOVA were employed in the study. Neither age nor gender of these employees revealed any significant impact on the job satisfaction of these employees. There was a significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of the employees based on their length of time on the job at the p<.05 level for the three levels [F(2, 217) = 3.117, p = 0.046]. There was also a significant difference in the job satisfaction scores for Medical staff (M=140.8 SD=16.1) and Non-Medical staff (M=137.1, SD=21.7) conditions; t (218) =1.42, p = 0.016. It is concluded that the longer the employees spend on the job, the more satisfied they become. Finding may assist in the informed decisions of executive decision makers of hospitals and health ministry. The implication of the findings of this study is that there is room for further research. It is recommended that hospital management and executives should examine various strategies to improve attrition levels and encourage tenure acquisition in hospital organisations.
Bernstein, D. A., & Nash, P. W. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.
Clark, E. A. (1997). Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work? Labour Economics, 4(4), 341–
Crossman, A. & Harris, P. (2006). Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers. Educational Management
Administration & Leadership, 34(1) 29–46.
Hall, R. H. (1994): Sociology of work: perspectives, analyses, and issues, Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks
Hulin, C.L. (2002). Lessons from industrial and organizational psychology, In J. Brett, F. Drasgow (Eds.), The
psychology of work: Theoretically based empirical research, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ (2002), pp. 3–22
Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Job attitudes. In W. C. Borman, D. R. ligen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of
psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 255-276). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kaiser, L. (2005). Gender-Job satisfaction differences across Europe: An indicator for labor market modernization.
The Institute for the Study of Labor. Discussion paper No 1896
Kim, S. (2005). Gender Differences in the Job Satisfaction of Public Employees: A Study of Seoul Metropolitan
Government, 52(9/10), 667-681
Klecker, B. (1997). Male elementary school teachers’ ratings of job satisfaction by years of teaching experience.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Memphis,
Koustelios A (2001). Personal characteristics and job satisfaction of Greek teachers. The International Journal
Educational Management 15(7): 354-358.
Kulas, J. T., McInnerney, J.E., Demuth, R.F., &Jadwinski, V. (2007). Employee satisfaction and theft: Testing climate
perceptions as a mediator. The Journal of Psychology, 141, 389-402.
Lanyon, R. I., & Goodstein, L. D. (2004). Validity and reliability of a pre-employment screening test: the
counterproductive behavior index (CBI). Journal of Business andPsychology, 18, 533-553.
Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M.D. Dunnette (Ed.). A Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297-1343). Chicago, Rand McNally
Locke, E.A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4 (1969), pp. 309–
Long, A. (2005), Happily ever after? A study of job satisfaction in Australia. The Economic Record, 81, 303-321.
Ma, X., & MacMillan, R. B. (1999). Influences of workplace conditions on teachers’ job satisfaction. The Journal of
Educational Research, 93, 39–47.
McCann, D.R. (2002). A Study of Job Satisfaction Among Directors of Classified Personnel in Merit (Civil Service)
Systems in California Public School Districts, County Offices of Education, and Community College Districts.
United State: Universal-Publishers
Mueller, C. W., & Kim, S. W. (2008). The contented female worker: Still a paradox?. In K. A. Hegtvedt & J. Clay-
Warner (Eds.),Justice: Advances in group processes volume 25 (pp.117-150). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group
Olatunji, S. O. & Mokuolu, B. O. (2014). The influence of sex, marital status, and tenure of service on job stress, and
job satisfaction of health workers in a Nigerian federal health institution. African Research Review, 8 (1), Serial
Shah, J. S., Crossman, A. & Parkpoom, C., (2003). The relationships of age and length of service with job
satisfaction: an examination of hotel employees in Thailand, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18 (7), 745 –
Spector, P. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes and Consequences. California: Sage.
Tomaževič, N.; Seljak, J.; Aristovnik, A. (2014). Factors influencing employee satisfaction in the police service: The
case of Slovenia. Personnel Review 43 (2): 209–227.
Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences.
Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194
Waskiewicz, S. P. (1999). Variables that contribute to job satisfaction of secondary school assistant principals. (PhD
Dissertation). Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Copyright is owned by the journal.