• Bolanle Wahab University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
  • Busuyi Ogunlola


Street littering and sweeping, Environmental sanitation, Employment, Sustainable waste management, Ado-Ekiti.


    This study examined the nature of street sweeping, the composition of litters, the socio-economic and health status of street sweepers and the public perception of the benefits and challenges of street sweeping in Ado-Ekiti. Primary data were obtained through direct personal observation, questionnaire administration and in-depth interview while secondary data were sourced from published and unpublished documents. Purposive and random sampling methods were adopted in the selection of respondents for questionnaire administration. Four types of structured questionnaire were designed and administered separately to: 103 (20%) of the street sweepers along the 21 swept streets; 193 (5%) buildings along the 21 streets; 14 officials of the Ekiti State Waste Management Authority involved in the street sweeping programme, and 42 pedestrians (female and male) along the 21 swept streets. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Findings revealed that all the street sweepers were females and casual workers. Sediments/broken blocks/sand/gravel (18.8%), plastics (16.6%), nylon/polythene (16.6%), leaves/wood/grass (15.0%), food wastes (12.6%), paper (9.9%), aluminum cans/metals/glass (5.3%), and miscellaneous (5.2%) constituted the street litters. The sweepers suffered from joint pain (96.1%), catarrh (91.3%), cough (83.5%) eye infection (70.8%) asthma (46.6%) and malaria (31.1%). Inadequate personnel, insufficient tools and equipment, poor remuneration, stigmatisation, exposure to accidents and harassment were the challenges faced by the sweepers. The benefits created by the street sweeping programme are: city beautification and aesthetics (74.6%); employment opportunity (16.6%); improved urban environmental health (6.2%), and attractiveness of the streets (2.6%).The study concluded that the street sweeping programme has made the streets sanitary and aesthetically pleasing, provided employment and raised public perception of Ado-Ekiti as a clean and healthy city. Employment of more sweepers, provision of adequate equipment, public sensitisation and attitudinal change, enforcement of environmental sanitation laws, and improved remuneration will make street sweeping a sustainable waste management strategy in Ado-Ekiti.  


Adebayo, W., Bamisaye, J., Akintan, O. & Ogunleye, S. 2006. Waste generation, disposal and management techniques in an urbanizing environment: A case study of Ado-Ekiti Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Science, 1.1: 63-66.

Adefemi, S. O. & Awokunmi, E. E. 2009. The impact of municipal solid waste disposal in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, Ekiti-State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3.8: 186-189.

Afon, A.O. 2006. Estimating the quality of solid waste generation in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners, XIX (1), 49-65

Agbayekhai, J. P. & Odeyemi, C. A. 2008. Application of geographical information system for waste collection points in Ado-Ekiti. Environ-Link, Vol. 2, no. 1, June, 110-120.

Agbola, T. & Jinadu, A. M. 2006. Community reactions and impact assessment of a landfill site in an indigenous Africa city. In: Agbola, Tunde (Ed.): Environmental planning and management: Concept and application to Nigeria. Pp. 114-145. Ibadan: Constellation Books.

Akintudire, I. O. & Alebiosu, E. O. 2013. Waste management strategies in Ado-Ekiti metropolis of Ekiti State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 9.29: 269 – 276.

Ali, M. (ed.) 2006. Urban waste management as if people matter. Habitat International, Special Issue, December, Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 729-1114.

Awosusi, A. O. 2010. Assessment of environmental problems and methods of waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. African Research Review, 4.3: 331-343

Awosusi, A. I., Oriye, O. & Owoeye, J. O. 2012. Waste management and enterprise development in slum communities of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 3(11), November, 579-590.

Ayorinde, D; Sridhar, M.K.C; Wahab, B; Asamu, S. and Tairu, T. 2010. Waste characterization in Ibadan. A report prepared for Oyo State Ministry of Environment and Water Resources/InWEnt-Capacity Building International of Germany.

Bartone, C. 1990. Economic and policy issues in resource recovery from municipal solid wastes. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 4: 7-23.

Binion, E. & Gutberlet, J. 2012. The effects of handling solid waste on the wellbeing of informal and organized recyclers: a review of the literature. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 18.1: 43–52.

Bramley, G., Dempsey, N., Power, S., Brown, C. & Watkins, D. 2009. Social sustainability and urban form: evidence from five British cities. Environment and Planning, 1.9: 21-25

Brinkmann, R., C. Emrich, M. Billus, B. Dwyer & J. Ryan. 1999. Chemical and physical characteristics of street sweeping sediments in Tampa, Florida. Report No. 98-12, Florida Center for Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Management, Gainesville, Florida, May 1999.

Brinkman, R. & Tobin, G. 2001. Urban sediment removal: The science, policy and management of street sweeping. Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bulle, S. 1999. Issues and results of community participation in urban environment: Comparative analysis of nine projects on waste management. A publication by ENDA/WASTE, UWEP Working Document 11.

Chapin, C. 1995. The rag pickers of Pune. The UNESCO Courier, March 12: 18-19.

Chikarmane, P. 2012. Integrating waste pickers into municipal solid waste management in Pune, India. WIEGO Policy Brief (Urban Policies) 8: 23.

Claytor, R. 1999. New developments in street sweeper technology. Watershed Protection Techniques, 3.1:44-57

Coad, A. 2003. Solid waste collection that benefits the urban poor – Suggested guidelines for municipal authorities under pressure. Collaborative Working Group on Solid Waste Management in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (CWG). Skat Foundation, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Curtis, M. C. 2002. Street sweeping for pollutant removal. Watershed Management Division, Department of Environmental Protection, Montgomery County, MD 18pp.

Dias, S. 2011. The municipal waste and citizenship forum: A platform for social inclusion and participation. WIEGO Policy Brief (Urban Policies) 5: 7.

Da, z., Asnani, P. U., Chris, Z., Ebastian, A. S. M. 2008. Improving municipal solid waste management in India: A source book for policy makers and practitioners. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank.

Ebisemiju, F. S. 1993. Ado-Ekiti region: Definition, location, extent and settings. In Ebisemiju, F. S. (Ed.), Ado-Ekiti Region: A geographical analysis and master plan. Pp. 27-30. Ado-Ekiti: Alpha Prints.

Egunjobi, T.O. 1986. Problems of solid waste management in Nigerian urban centre In: E. O. Adeniyi and I.B. Bello-Imam (Eds.) Development and the Environment. Proceedings of the 12th National Conference, NISER, Ibadan. Pp. 303-318.

Egunjobi, Layi & Agbola, Tunde. 1993. Introduction. In Agbola, S. B. and Egunjobi, L. (Eds.), Environmental health and the potential of the healthy city approach in Nigeria. Pp. 1-6. Ibadan: Centre for Urban and Regional Planning, university of Ibadan.

Ekiti State of Nigeria. 2004. Environmental Health and Sanitation Law 2004. Ekiti: Ekiti State of Nigeria.

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) 2009. The occupational health and safety of cleaning workers. Luxembourg: office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Ewis, A. A., Rahma, M. A., Mohamed, E. S., Hifnawy, T. M. and Arafa, A. E. 2013. Occupational health-related morbidities among street sweepers and waste collectors at Beni-Suef, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 2013; 37 (1): 79-94

FDEP. 2004. Guidance for the management of street sweepings, catch basin sediments and stormwater system sediments. Final Report, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Solid Waste Section, Tallahassee, Florida, May 2004.

Filani, M. O. & Abumere, S. I. 1992. Forecasting solid waste magnitudes for Nigerian cities. Paper presented at the National Conference on Development and the Environment, NISER, Ibadan, June.

Geller, E. S., Winett, R. A., & Everett, P. B. 1982. Preserving the environment: Strategies for behaviour change. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Gerold, A. 2009. Integrating the informal sector in solid waste management systems. Mimeo, United Nations

University, Tokyo.

Gowan, T. 1997. American untouchables: Homeless scavengers in San Francisco's underground economy. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 17.3/4: 159–190.

Guerrero, L.A. 2013. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management 33.1:220-232.

Gutberlet, J. 1997. Informal recycling and occupational health in Santo André, Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 18.1: 1–15.

Hastings, A., Flint, J., McKenzie, C. & Mills, C. 2005. Cleaning up neighbourhoods: Environmental problems and service provision in deprived areas. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Home Office. 2006. Respect action plan. London: British Home Office, June 2006.

IJgosse, J. 2012. Paying waste pickers for environmental services: A critical examination of options proposed in Brazil. WIEGO Technical Brief (Urban Policies) No. 6.

Izugbara, C. O. and Umoh, J. O. 2004; Indigenous waste management practices among the Ngwa of Southeastern Nigeria: Some lessons and policy implications. The Environmentalist, 24, 87-92.

Kayser, T. 2015. Best management practices for street sweeping. American Sweeper magazine, 7.1: 1-3.

Keating, J. 2002. Street sweepers: picking up speed and quieting down. Stormwater, 3.5: 68-74.

Kidwell-Ross, R. 2013. Amsterdam's sweeping challenges. Available at www., accessed on 17 April, 2015.

Kirkpatrick, L. and Carter, M. 2007. Mississippi: Off the Beaten Path, GPP Travel.

Kuehl, R., Marti, M. & Schilling, J. 2008. Resource for Implementing a Street Sweeping Best Practice. Report prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services. Available at Accessed on 16 July, 2012.

Lake Barcroft Watershed Improvement District. 2005. WID Bulletins: Street sweeping. Available at Accessed on 24 August, 2015.

Laughin, R.G. 1980. Waste treatment and utilisation: Theory and practice of waste management. New York: Pergamon Press.

Law, N., Diblasi, K. & Ghosh, U. 2008. Deriving reliable pollutant rates for municipal street sweeping and storm drain cleanout programmes in Chesapeake Bay Basin: Draft report by the Centre for Watershed Protection for US.EPA. Baltimore: Centre for Watershed Protection

Leavin, C. 1994. Calculating the cost of waste management. World Waste Journal, 14: 42.

Lewis, A., Turton, P. and Sweetman, T. 2009. Litterbugs: How to deal with the problem of littering. London: Policy Exchange.

Liebens, J. 2001. Contamination of sediments in street sweepings and stormwater sytems: pollutant composition and sediment reuse options. Report No. 00-10, Florida Center for Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Management, Gainesville, Florida, January 2001.

Mabogunje, A.L. 2001. Lessons of experience in housing low-income groups in sub-saharan Africa. Paper presented at international conference on housing and urban development for low-income group in sub-saharan Africa held in Accra, Ghana, 22-26 July.

Martinelli, T.J, Waschbusch, R, Bannerman, R. & Wisner, A. 2002. Pollutant loading to stormwater runoff from highways: the impact of a freeway sweeping program. Final Report No. WI-11-01, WISDOT Highway Research Study #97-01. Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI.

Masocha, Mhosisi. 2006. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits. Habitat International, 30.4: 838 – 848.

McLean, M. 2000. Informal collection: a matter of survival amongst the urban vulnerable. Journal for Development Administration and Politics 30.2: 8 – 26.

Medina, M. 2007. The World's scavengers: Salvaging for sustainable consumption and production. New York: Altamira Press.

Medina, M. 2008. The informal recycling sector in developing countries: organizing waste pickers to enhance their impact. Gridlines, 44: 1-13.

Minton, G.R., Lief, B. & Sutherland, R. 1998. High efficiency sweeping or clean a street, save a Salmon! Stormwater Treatment Northwest, 4.4: 54-62

Nabegu, A. (2010). An analysis of municipal solid waste in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 31(2), 111-119.

Nas, P.J. and Jaffe, R. 2004. Informal waste management: Shifting the focus from problem to potential. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 6: 337–353.

Newman, T.L., Leo, W.M., Muekker, J.A. & Gaffoglio, R. 1996. Effectiveness of street cleaning for floatables control. Proceedings: Urban Wet Weather Pollution: Controlling Sewer Overflows and Stormwater Pollution. June 16-19.

Nkwocha, E. E. 2009. Street littering in Nigerian towns: Towards a framework for sustainable urban cleanliness. African Research Review- An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, Vol. 3 (5), 147-164, October, 2009

NPC. 2007. Population and housing census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja: National Population Commission.

Oberts, G. 1994. Best practices: street sweeping. Metropolitan Council, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101. Publication No. 71-94-020A.

Ogu, V.I. (2000) Private sector participation and municipal waste management in Benin City, Nigeria. Environment and Urbanization, 12 (2). 103-117.

Ojedokun, A. O. & Balogun, S. K. 2011. Responsible environmental behaviour among residents of Ibadan: Where is the place of attitude towards littering in the agenda to keep Ibadan clean? Ibadan Planning Journal. Vol. 1, No. 1, June, 67-81.

Ojedokun, A. O. & Balogun, S. K. 2013. Self-monitoring and responsible environmental behaviour: The mediating role of attitudes towards littering. Review of Psychology Frontier, 2(1):31-38

Olufayo, O. & Omotosho, B.J. 2007. Waste disposal and waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The Social Science, 2.2: 111-115.

Omran, A. & Read, A.D. 2008. “Waste not want notâ€: A study of household attitude toward recycling of solid waste. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 7.1: 1-8.

Parkes, A., Kearns, A. & Atkinson, R. 2002. ‘What makes people dissatisfied with their neighbourhoods? Urban Studies, 39.2: 13–38.

PCI. 2008. The study on solid waste management for Metro Manila, Philippines. Tokyo: Pacific Consultants International.

Rouse, J.R. 2006. Seeking common ground for people: Livelihoods, governance and waste. Habitat International, 30.1: 741–753.

Scheinberg A, Anshutz J. & van de Klundert A. 2006. Waste pickers: poor victims or waste management professionals? Paper presented at CWG – WASH Workshop on Solid Waste, Health and the Millennium Development Goals, February 1 - 5, Kolkata, India

Scheinberg, J. A. 2007. Slim picking: Supporting waste pickers in the ecological modernization of urban waste management systems. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 5.3: 257–267.

Schilling, J.G. 2005. Street sweeping – Report No. 1, State of the Practice. Prepared for RamseyWashington Metro Watershed District, North St. Paul, Minnesota.

Silverman, E., Lupton, R. & Fenton, A. 2006. Attracting and retaining families in new urban mixed income communities. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Sridhar, M.K.C., Bammeke, A.O. & Omishakin, M.A. 1985. A study on the characteristics of refuse in Ibadan, Nigeria, Waste Management and Research, U.K., 3, 191-201.

Stidger, R. 2003. The pros and cons of municipal street sweeping. Better Roads. 6.1: 12-19.

Stokols, D., & Altman, I. (Eds.).1987. Handbook of Environmental Psychology, Vols. 1-2. New York: John Wiley.

Stormwatercenter. 2005. Pollution prevention fact sheet: Parking lot and street cleaning. Available at Accessed on April 19, 2015.

Terrene Institute. 1998. A clean sweep is now possible. Runoff Report, 6.4: 9-11.

Thomas-Hope, E. 1998. Solid waste management. Critical issues for developing countries. University Press of the West Indies.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. National menu of best management practices: Parking lot and street cleaning. Pollution prevention and good housekeeping. No. 4, October 27.

UNEP. 2015. Sound technical options in street sweeping. UNEP Newsletter. Available at Accessed on 24 August, 2015.

Volkening, A. 2004. Use of mathematical optimization to select cost-effective best management practices. Watershed 2004 Conference, July 11-14th, Dearborn, Michigan. Water Environment Federation.

Wahab, Bolanle. 2013. ‘Disaster Risk Management in Nigerian Human Settlements’. In: B. Wahab, N. Atebije and I. Yunusa (Eds.), Disaster Risk Management in Nigerian Rural and Urban Settlements. ISBN: 978-978-935-509-9, Pp. 1-37. Abuja: Nigerian Institute of Town Planners and Town Planners Registration Council.

Wahab, B. & Kehinde, O. 2014. Street sweeping in Ibadan: Urbanizing Yoruba traditional environmental sanitation practice. African Journal of Sustainable Development, 4.1: 87-101

Wahab, B., Atebije, N. & Yunusa, I. (Eds.), 2014. Building clean cities in Nigeria. ISBN: 978-978-935-510-5. Abuja: Nigerian Institute of Town Planners and Town Planners Registration Council.

Walch, M. 2006. Monitoring of contaminants in Delaware street sweeping residuals and evaluation of recycling/disposal options. Paper presented at 21st Inter. Conf. on Solid Waste Technology. And Management Philadelphia, PA, March 26-29, 2006.

Walker, T. A. & Wong, T.H.F. 1999. Effectiveness of street sweeping for stormwater pollution control. Technical Report 99/8 Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800.

Ward, Vivienne & Kamsteeg Frans. 2006. Window onto a World of waste: Cultural aspects of work in South Africa. Anthropology Southern Africa, 29.1 & 2: 58-65.

Waschbusch, R. J. 2003. Data and methods of a 1999-2000 street sweeping study on an urban freeway in Milwaukee County Wisconsin. USGS Open File Report 03-93 (prepared in cooperation with Wisconsin Dept. of Transportation). U.S. Geological Survey, Madison, WI.

Wilson, David C., Costas, Velis & Chris, Cheeseman. 2006. Role of informal sector recycling in waste management in developing countries. Habitat International. 30.4: 165-176.