PERCEIVED IMPACT OF EXTERNAL AND MATERNAL FACTORS ON THE HEALTH OF UNBORN HUMAN BEINGS
The study investigated perceived impact of external and maternal factors on the health of unborn human beings. Using snowball method, a total of one hundred and eighty-four working mothers, comprising 140 University of Nigeria lecturers (age = 32 -58 years with a mean age of 45 years); 44 nurses, drawn from University teaching hospital Enugu (age 28-56years with a mean age of 42 years), freely participated in the study. External and maternal factor instrument developed and validated by the researcher was used for the study. Result showed that there was significant impact of external factors on the unborn human beings F (1, 181) = 203.7, p< .0001. Maternal factors had significant impact on the unborn human beings (1, 181) = 53.6 p<.0001. The interaction effect of external and maternal factors on child health was significant F (1,181) =8.65 p< .001. It was discovered that the strength or quality of the father‘s sperm can affect the health of the unborn. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions were made for further study.
Addis, A., Magrini, N., & Mastroiaco, P. (2001) Drug use during pregnancy. Lancet, 357. 800.
Aguwa, C. N. & Ogbuokua, J. E. (1998). Handbook of pharmacology for nursing and allied health profession. Enugu: Africana Publishers Ltd.
Anwana, U. I. (2001). Psychology aspects of development (2nd ed). Enugu: Academic Publishing Company.
Arthur, C. C. & Hall, J. E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Mississippi: Guyton & Hall.
Ashemead, G. G. (2003). Smoking and Pregnancy. Journal of Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 14. 299-304.
Baklinski, T. M. (2008). Death of unborn child as a result of mother’s drug use. A Homicide www.lifesitnew.com.
Blackman, J. (1997). Medical aspects of developmental disabilities in children birth to three’ Gaithershurg. MD. Aspen Publications.
Caldwell, M. B. & Rogers, M. F. (1991). Epidemiology of Pediatric HIV infection Pediatric Clinics of North America, 38, 1-16.
Cnattingius, S. Signorello, L. B. Anneren, G. Reme, A, & Granatn, F. (2000). Caffeine intake and risk of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. New England Journal of Medicine 343. 1839-1845.
Carmichael, S. L. & Shaw, G. M. (2002). Maternal life stress and congenital abnormalities. Epidemiology. 11 30-35.
Cranadal, C. Crosby, R. D. & Carlson, G. A. (2004). Does Pregnancy affect outcome of methadone maintenance treatment? Journal of substance Abuse Treatment 26. 295-303.
Dacey, J. S. & Travers, J. F. (2002). Human Development Across the Lifespan. New York: Mcgraw Hill.
Eskenazi, B. Staplton, A. L., Kharrazi, M. & Chee, W. Y. (1999). Association between maternal decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee consumption and fetal growth and gestational duration. Expidemology 10. 242-244
Fraser,D.M.,& Cooper M.A.(2003). Myles text book for midwives. London: Churchill Livingstone.
Fraser, D.M & Cooper M.A.& (2009).Myles text book for midwives. New York: Evolve Learning system
Fried, P.A. & Watkinson B. (1990). 36-48 month neurobehavioural follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana cigarette and alcohol. Developmental and behavioural, Pediatrics II. 49-58.
Kumari, A. S. (2001). Pregnancy outcome in women with morbid obesity. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 73, 101-107.
Kumar, S. (1982). Fetal alcohol Syndrome: Mechanism of spermatogenesis. Ann Chin Lab. & Ci 12. 254-257.
Lanchester, S. (1988). Community Health Nursing: Process and practice for promoting health. Lexington mosely year book.
Leman,P.,Bremner, A.,Parke, R.D., & Gauvain, M.(2012). DevelopmentalPsychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Lewis, M. W. Misra, & Johnson, H. L. & Rosen, T. S. (2004). Neurologic al and developmental outcomes of prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring from 12-13 weeks.
Mathews, T. J. Menacker, F.& MacDorman, M. F. (2003). Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2001 period linked birth/infant death data set. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52, 1-25.
Miller, M. E. (1992). Genetic disease. In R. A. Hockelman (Ed.) Primary pediactric Care (2nd ed) St. Louis Moshy Year book.
Monk, C. Fifer, N. P., Myers, M. M. Sloan, R. P., Trien, R. & Hurtado A. (2000). Maternal Stress responses and anxiety during pregnancy: effects of fetal heart rate. Developmental Psychobiology 36. 67-77.
Moore, K. & Persaud, T. (1998). Before we are born: essentials of embryology and birth defects. Philadelphia Saunders.
Narang, A. & Jain, N. (2001). Haemotytic Disease of newborn. Indian Journal of Pediatrics (68). 167-172.
National Drug Enforcement Agency (2003). 2003 drug data collection and Report. Ikoyi, Lagos, Drug Demand Reduction. Directorate National Drug Enforcement Agency.
Nwoke, M.B.(2013). Perceived influence of teratogen on prenatal and postnatal life of developing human beings. European Journal of Social Sciences. 38, 2,156-165
Obot, I. S. (1993). Epidemiology and control of substance abuse in Nigeria. Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA). Jos, Nigeria.
Oladele, J. O. (1998). Fundamentals of Psychological foundations of Education. Lagos: Nigeria Johns-Lod Publishers. Ltd.
Olds, S. London, M. & Ladewig, P. (1996). Maternal newborn nursing. Reading M.A. Addison. Wesley.
O’Leary. C.(2004). Fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of pediatric child healt,h 40,2-7
Ofovwe, C.(2011) Fundamentals of general and clinical psychology (First edition) Benin City Nigeria: Mindex publishing company limited
Pastorino, E. & Portillo, S. D. (2006). What is Psychology. Spain: Wadsworth.
Santrock, J. W. (2006). Life-Span Development (10th Ed) New York: Mcgraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Standwood, G. D. & Levitt, (2004). Drug exposure early in life. Functional Repercussions of changing neuropharmacology during sensitive periods of brain development. Current opinions in Pharamacology 4, 65-71.
U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Statistical abstract of the United States (122nd ed. Washington D.C. US Government Printing Office.
Weiss, R. E. (2001). Pregnancy and birth. RH Factor in Pregnancy. Available on the internet at www.about.com
Young, N. K. (1997). Effects of alcohol and other drugs on Children. Journal of Psychoaclive drugs 29, 23-42
Zanden V. (1993). Human Development New York: Mcgraw-Hill Inc.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.