This study constructed and validated a measure for students’ dropout from secondary school programme. The Students’ Dropout Scale (SDS) is a 25-items instrument developed according to the frame work of the social sciences literature on concepts of dropout. Descriptive survey research design was employed. Four hundred dropouts randomly selected using random sampling techniques within Ibadan metropolis were administered the SDS and Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). Principal Components and confirmatory factor analyses resulted to a seven component model of SDS. For further purification of data, items with factor loading less than 0.30 and those with more than 0.4 on two or more factors were removed. The instrument has high internal consistency, and adequate construct and discriminant validity. The subscales of SDS were: Self Ability, Self Ignorance, Parents’ Role, Self Desire, Individual Preference, School Relationship and Antisocial Behaviours. The implications of the findings were discussed.






Student, Dropout, Scale, Adolescents, Validation, Construction.

Full Text:



Abimboye, A. (2011,). Ten million Nigerian Children Out of School. Newswatch Magazine , September

Adaba, J.O. (2001). The Influence of Dropout among Female Secondary School Students in Gboyin Local Government Area. Unpublished B.Ed. project, University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

Ajaja, O.P. (2011). School Dropout Pattern Among Senior Secondary School in Delta Sate, Nigeria.

Alexander, K. L., Doris R. E., and Nader S. K. (2001). The dropout process in life course perspective: Early risk factors at home and school. Teachers College Record 103:760-822.

Allensworth, E. (2005). Graduation and Dropout Trends in Chicago: A look at cohorts of students from 1991 through 2004. Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Ayodele, C.S., and Bada, F.O. (2007). Causes of Dropout in Schools as perceived by Secondary School Students in Idanre Local Government. Medwell Journal. The Social Sciences 2(3): 327-330

Bagozzi, R.P. and Heatherton, T.F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self –esteem. Structural Equation Modeling, 1, 35-67.

Bentler, P.M. and Bonette, D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Bollen, K.A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods and research, 17, 303-316.

Bridgeland, J. M., Dilulio, J. J., & Morison K. B. (2006). The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts. 06.pdf.

Cohen, A. (1955) Delinquent Boys. New York: Free Press.

Cronbach, L. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Consistency of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Ensminger, M. and A. Slusarick (1992). Path to high school graduation or dropout. A longitudinal study of a first grade cohort. Sociology of Education 65:95-113.

Fafunwa, A.B. (1983). Dropout in the Nigeria education system. In S.A. Adesina, and Ajayi, E. (Eds.) Nigeria Education Trends and Issues. Ile Ife: University of Ife Press, Nig. Ltd.

Farnwort H, M. and M.J. Lieber (1989). Strain theory revisited: economic goals, educational means and delinquency. American Sociological Review 54:263-274

Finn, J., (1989). "Withdrawing from School." Review of Educational Research 59:117- 42.

Gary, A.S. (2004). School Dropout and Subsequent offending: Distinguishing selection from causation. Unpublished Master of Art thesis. Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland.

Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency: Berkeley: University of California Press

Jimerson, S.R., G.E. Anderson, and A.D. Whipple (2002). Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relationship between grade rentation and dropping out of high school. Psychology in the schools 39:441-457.

Mueller, R.O. (1996). Confirmatory factor analysis in Basic principles of structural equation modeling. An introduction in LISREL and EQS (pp. 62-128), New York: Springer-Verlag.

Munro, B.H. (2001). Statistical method for health care research, (4th edition), Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Neild, R.C. and Balfanz, R. (2006). Unfulfilled promise: The dimensions and characteristics of Philadelphia’s dropout crisis, 2000-2005.

Nunnally, J.C. and Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric Theory, (3rd edition), New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rumberger, R. W. (2004). Why students drop out of school. In Orfield, G. (Ed.), Dropouts in America: Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis (pp. 131–156). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Rumberger, R. and Sun Ah Lim (2011) Why Students Drop out of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research (Santa Barbara: California Dropout Research Project, University of California, 2008), http:// cdrp .ucsb .edu/ dropouts/ Pubs Reports.

Salami, S.O. (2011). Development and Validation of Occupational Stress Scale. Nigerian Journal of Applied

Psychology, 12(2), 1-19.

Stroup, A.L. and L.N. Robins (1972). Elementry school predictors of high school dropout among black males. Sociology of education 45:212-222.

Sewell, W.H., A.O. Haller and A. Portes (1969). The educational and early occupational attainment process. American Sociological Review 34:82-92.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.