Emotional Intelligence, Academic self efficacy, Self esteem, Underachievement and High achievers.


            Gifted underachievement is everywhere across the lifespan of both children and adolescent, with a significant amount of time spent in school. Therefore school has a substantial impact on the academic development of every young people. It has been observed that high achieving students are increasingly faced by the problem of not achieving academically. Thus some of them have been tagged as “underachievers”.            The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a sample of 200 participants randomly selected from some secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis. Data were collected using emotional intelligence scale (r=0.79), Academic self efficacy scale (r=0.71), Self esteem scale (r=0.76) and underachievement scale (r=0.76). Data were analysed using pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression which were tested at 0.05 level of significant.            The independent variables (emotional intelligence, Academic self efficacy, self esteem) had significant joint contributing effect R2 on underachievement (F(3,195) = 73.426, P<0.05, which accounted for 53.0% (Adj. R2 = .530) variation in the prediction of underachievement among high achievers. While the most potent factor was efficacy (N=.426, t=7.384, P<.05) was ranked second in the distribution.There is a great tendency of sound academic performance among the high achieving learners if the predictor factors (emotional intelligence, academic self efficacy and self esteem) increases.Keywords: 


Aslin, A. W. (1993). Diversity and multiculturallsm on campus: How are students affected?

Change, 25,44-49.

Astin, A. (1982). Minorities in American higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Bandura, A. (1997). Self- Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Barbara, H.S., (2005). Gifted underachievement: oxymoron or educational enigma. Prufrock press Inc. Available

from: hptt://

Butler, K. H. (1992). We do overcome: Resilient black college males. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 125A.

(UMINo. AAG94-20605)

Clark, R. (1983). Family life and school achievement: Why poor black children succeed or fail. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Comer, J. P., and Toussaint, A. (1990). Raising black children. New York: Penguin Books.

Dezmon, B. (2006). A comparison analysis of the relationship between student perceptions of school climate and

academic achievement among high achieving versus low achieving African-American students in suburban middle schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland.

Gallagher, J.J., (1991). Personal patterns of underachievement Journal for the Education of the gifted, 14 (5), 22 1-23.

Goleman. D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York:Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Hammond, D. C. (1990). Handbook of hypnotic suggestions and metaphors. New York: Norton.

Kerlinger. F. N. (2000) Foundation of behavioural research (4th Ed.) Thomas Academic Resource Centre.

Lean, M. R. (1999). Making sense of self-esteem. American Psychological Society, Sflj. 32-

Mayer. J. D.,and Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3— 31"). New York: Basic Books.

Multon. K. D., Brown, S. D., and Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation- of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counselors Psychology, 38, 30-38.

Newlin. R. B. (2003) Paws for Reading: An Innovative Program Uses Dogs to Help Kids Read Better." School

Libraiy Journal 49 .6 - 43.

Pajares. F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 6(4) 543-578.

Pintrich. P.R. and DeGroot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33—40.

Reis. S. M., and McCoach, D. B. (2000). The underachievement of gifted students: What do we know and where Do we go? Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, 152-170.

Rozell. E.J., Pettijohn, C.E., and Parker, R.S. (2002). An empirical evaluation of emotional intelligence: The impact

on management development. Journal of Management Development, 21, 272 – 289.

Schunk, D.H. and Zimmerman, B. (2006). Competence and control beliefs: Distinguishing the means and ends. In

P.A. Alexander and P.H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook ofEducational Psychology (pp. 349-367). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Siegle, D.. and McCoach, D.B. (2001). Promoting a positive achievement attitude with gifted and talented students. The social and emotional development of gifted children: what do we know? Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Thomas, R.M. (2005). Comparing theories of child development (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thornson-Wadsworth.

Thorndike. E.L. (1920). Intelligence and its use. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235.

Tinajero, C. and Paramo, M.F. (1997). Field dependence-independence and academic achievement: A re-examination of their relationship. Brit