PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SMARTPHONE ADDICTION AS CORRELATES OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

K O NWEKE, N N UMEAKU, G C ANYAORAH, E B OFOMA, K C AZUBUIKE

Abstract


 

The study examined personality traits and smartphone addiction as correlates of academic performance among undergraduates. The participants were 55 undergraduates who volunteered from a randomly selected level in the department of psychology in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. Participants comprised of 22 males and 33 females with mean age 23.09 years   and standard deviation 8.47 years. The study adopted correlation design, and data analysis was done using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Result reveal that personality traits were significant in all its domains except Openness to experience. Also, smartphone addiction was significant at r = .16, p < .05. All hypothesis were confirmed. It was concluded that both personality traits and smartphone addiction predicted academic performance among undergraduates in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackerman, C.E. (2018). What is self- efficacy theory in psychology? Positive Psychology. Com. https://positivepsychology.com/self-efficacy/

Ackerman, E. (2016). Big Five personality traits: The OCEAN model explained. Positive Psychology. https://positivepsychology.com/big-five-personality-theory/

Akiri, A. A., & Ugborugbo, N. M. (2009). Teachers’ effectiveness and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Delta state, Nigeria. Stud Home Comm Sci, 3(2), 107-113.

Ali, N., Jusoff, K., Ali, S., Mokhtar, N., & Salamt, A. S. A. (2009). The factors influencing students’ performance at Universiti Teknologi Mara Kedah, Malaysia. Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures, 3 (4).

Aremu, A. O., & Sokan, B. O. (2003). A multi-causal evaluation of academic performance of Nigerian learners: Issues and Implications for National Development. Department of Guidance and Counseling, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 89.

Arooba, M., Farooqi, A., Khan, T.A., Ajmal, W., & Tooba, Z. (2020). The impact of smartphone addiction on academic performance of higher education students. MPRA (Munich Personal RePec Archive), 1-44. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/104485/

Baert, S., Vujic, S., Amez, S. Claeskens, M., Daman, T., Maeckelberghe, A., Omey, E., & Marez, L. (2018). Smartphone use and academic performance: Correlation or causal relationship? IZA Institute of Labour Economics, 1-25.

Bamidele, M., & Bamidele, A. (2013). Influence of cognitive performance on mathematics student’s level of achievement. International Researcher, 2 (1), 142-150.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37,122-147.

Bell, (2020). What is academic performance? https://www.quora.com/What-is-academic-performance

Cha, S.S., & Seo, B.K. (2018). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service and game use. Heal Psychol Open, 5(1) 2055102918755046.

Chen, Y.Y., & Ting, C.H. (2020). Smartphone addiction. Adolescent Addiction,215-240. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339744936

Cho, H.Y., Kim, D. J., & Park, J. W. (2017). Stress and adult smartphone addiction: Mediation by self‐control, neuroticism, and extraversion. Stress and Health, 1–7. https://doi..org/10.1002/smi.2749.

Cohn, J. (2016). “Devilish smartphones” and the “stone-cold” Internet: Implications of the technology addiction trope in college student digital literacy narratives. Computers and Composition, 42, 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2016.08.008

Demir, S. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between smart phone addiction and emotional intelligence among high school students. Master Thesis, Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Sciences, Adana.

Diener, E., Lucas, R.E., & Cummings, J.A. (n.d.). Personality traits. Introduction To Psychology. https://openpress.usask.ca/introductiontopsychology/chapter/personality-traits/

De-Sola G, J., Rodríguez, F. F., & Rubio, G. (2016). Cell-phone addiction: A review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 175. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175

Ehrhart, M.G., Ehrhart, K.H., Roesch, S.C., Chung- Herrera, B.G., Nadler, K., & Bradshaw, K. (2009). Testing the latent factor structure and construct validity of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 47 (8), 900-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.012

Enez, D. A., Kose, S., Noyan, C. O., Nurmedov, S., Yılmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2016). Smartphone addiction and its relationship with social anxiety and loneliness. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(7), 520–525. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1158319

Fidan, H. (2016). Development and validity of mobile addiction scale: Components model approach. The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 3(3), 433-469.

Foen, S.N., Hassan, N.S.I., Mohammad, N.H., & Malek, N.A.A. (2017). The relationship between smartphone use and academic performance: A case of students in Malaysian tertiary institution. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(4), 58-70.

Gajghat, R.H., Handa, C.C., & Himte, R.L. (2017). Factors influencing academic performance of the students at university level exam: A literature review. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 6(5), 102-110. http://www.ijret.org

Gosling, S., Rentfrow, P.J., & Swann, W. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37 (6), 504-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/80092-6566(03)00046-1

Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 633-649. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.09.005.

Hossain, M. (2019). Impact of mobile phone usage on academic performance. World Scientific News: An International Journal, 118, 164-180.

Joe, A. I., Kpolovie, P. J., Osonwa, K. E. & Iderima, C. E. (2014). Modes of admission and academic performance in Nigerian universities. Merit Research Journals. http://meritresearchjournals.org/er/content/2014/September/Kpolovie%20et%20al.pdf

Khan, A. A., Khalid, A., & Iqbal, R. (2019). Revealing the relationship between smartphone addiction and academic performance of students: Evidences from higher educational institutes of Pakistan. Pakistan Administrative Review, 3(2), 74–83.

Kim, J. H., Seo, M., & David, P. (2015). alleviating depression only to become problematic mobile phone users: Can face-to-face communication be the antidote? Computers in Human Behaviour, 51,440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.030.

Kim, S.E., Kim, J.W., & Jee, Y.S. (2015). Relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity in Chinese international students in Korea. Journal of behavioural addictions, 4(3),200. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.028

Kim, S. G., Park, J., Kim, H. T., Pan, Z., Lee, Y., & McIntyre, R. S. (2019). The relationship between smartphone addiction and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity in South Korean adolescents. Annals of General Psychiatry, 18(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-019-0224-8.

Kiran, S., Sanjana, J.S., & Reddy, N.J. (2019). Mobile phone addiction: symptoms and causes- A review. International Conference on Trends in Industrial & Value Engineering, Business and Social Innovation, 81-86. https://www.researchgate.NWT/publication/330521664

Kpolovie, P.J., Joe, A.I., & Okoto, T. (2014). Academic achievement prediction: Role of interest in learning and attitude towards school. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 1(11), 73-100.

Kumari, B. (2014). The correlation of personality traits and academic performance: A review of literature. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(4), 15-18. www.iosrjournals.org

Kundhavai, S., Sumathi, K., & Lakshmi, N.S. (2018). Reviewing the impact of smartphone usage on academic performance among students of higher learning. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 118(8), 1-7. https://www.ijpam.eu.

Lee, Y. (2019). What is academic performance? https://www.quora.com/What-is-academic-performance

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., & Karpinski, A. C., (2015). The relationship between cell phone use and academic performance in a sample of U.S. college students. SAGE Open, 5(1), 1-9. Doi:10.1177/2158244015573169

Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L., & Sears, P. S. (1944). Level of aspiration. In J. M. V. Hundt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders. 333-378.. New York: Roland Press.

Lim, G.Y. (2020). The Big Five personality traits. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/big-five-personality.html

Lin, Y., Lee, Y., Chang, L., Kuo Terry, B.J., Chen, S., & Tseng, H. (2014) Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PLoS ONE, 9(6), 1-5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098312

Manizheh, A. (2016). Causes of poor academic performance among Omani students. International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(1). https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Causes-of-Poor-Academic-Performance-among-Omani-Alami/d56e4c7601b1ad7289b2d66717605f30d06aa34f

McMillan, J., & Western, J. (2000). Measurement of social-economic status of Australian higher education students. Higher Education, 39(2).

Mwaura, J.M. (2011). Strategies employed by secondary school principals to improve. academic performance in Embu District.

Neuenschwander, R., Cimeli, P., Röthlisberger, M., & Roebers, C. M. (2013). Personality factors in elementary school children: Contributions to academic performance over and above executive functions? Learning and Individual Differences, 25, 118- 125.

Ogbogu, C. O. (2011). Modes of funding Nigerian Universities and the implications on performance. Paper presented at the 2011 Barcelona European Education conference NH Calderon, Rambla, Barcelona, Spain.

Oladebinu, T.O., Adediran, A.A., & Oyediran, W.O. (2018). Factors affecting students' academic performance in colleges of education in southwest, Nigeria. British Journal of Education, 6(10), 43-56.

Oludayo, T. (2016). Meet the ‘yahoo boys’- Nigeria’s undergraduate conmen. Children’s Mental Health Webinar. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2016-07-28/meet-the-yahoo-boys-nigerias-undergraduate-conmen

Ozen, S., & Topçu, M. (2017). The relationship between smartphone addiction and depression, obsession-compulsion, impulsivity, alexithymia in medical students. Addiction Journal, 18(1), 16-24.

Poropat, E.A., & Vedel, A. (2017). Personality and academic performance. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313869097

Rad, A.T., Asghar, H.V., & Sayed, S.T. (2011). The effect of personality traits on academic performance: The mediating role of academic motivation. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 32, 367-371.

Rahim, N.A.A., Siah, Y., Tee, X.Y., & Siah, P.C. (2021). Smartphone addiction: Its relationships to personality traits and types of smartphone use. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 5(1), 128-140

Rajesh, B., & Santhi, V. (2020). Impact of smartphone usage on the academic performance among medical students. Journal of Evolution of Medical a Dental Sciences. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339498566

Regier, J. (2011). Why is academic success important? Saskatchewan School Boards Association.

Rizwan, A.S.M. & Saha, S. (2021) Smartphone addiction https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349825350_Smartphone_Addiction

Rogel, R.I. (2012). Academic behavior and performance of third year students of general Emilio Aguinaldo national high school, division of cavite.

Shahrestanaki, E., Maajani, K., Safarpour, M., Ghahremanlou, H. H., Tiyuri, A., & Sahebkar, M. (2020). The relationship between smartphone addiction and quality of life among students at tehran university of medical sciences. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 7(1), 23–32.

Sibanda, L., Iwu, C.G., & Olumide, H.B. (2015). Factors influencing academic performance of university students. Demography and Social Economy, 2(24),103-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.15407/dse2015.02.103

Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2012). Development of Big Five domains and facets in adulthood: Mean-Level Age Trends and Broadly Versus Narrowly Acting Mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 80 (4), 881–914. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00752.x

Soto, C.J. (2018). Big Five traits. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development, 240-241. https://researchgate.net/publication/324115204

Steinmayr, R., Anja, M., Weidinger, A.F., & Wirthwein, L. (2020). Academic achievement. Oxford Bibliographies. https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756810/obo-9780199756810-0108.xml

Tomsik, R. (2018). Impact of Big Five personality traits on academic performance of university students. Conference Paper, 53-61. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/326059227

Verešová, M. (2015). Learning strategy, personality traits and academic achievement of university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 174, 3473-3478.

Whitmire, R. (2020). New data: Sharp declines in community college enrollment are being driven by disappearing male students. https://www.the74million.org/article/new-data-sharp-declines-in-community-college-enrollment-are-being-driven-by-disappearing-male-students/

Willingham, W. W., Pollack, J. M., & Lewis, C. (2002). Grades and test scores: Accounting for observed differences. Journal of Educational Measurement, 39(1), 1-37.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.