• Davis I EGWUONWU
  • Oluwafunmilayo O OLONADE


The purpose of this study was to examine self-blame, anxiety and depression as determinants of suicidal ideation among tertiary students with recent history of abortion. The study adopted a quantitative method of analysis using an ex post facto research design for data collection from 202 individuals. Three hypotheses were developed from the literature review and tested using multiple regressions and correlation matrices. Results showed that self-blame (r=0.69, p<.05), Anxiety (r=0.43, p<.05) and Depression (r=0.27, p<.05) have positive significant correlations with suicide ideation among tertiary students with history of abortion. Also, self-blame, anxiety and depression jointly predicted suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at [R2=0.638; F (3,199) =35.70; p<.05]. Further analyses show that self-blame (ß=-.312, t=-2.29, p<.05), anxiety (ß=.121, t=3.01, p<.05) and depression (ß=-.005, t=.050, p<.05) also had significant independent influence on suicide ideation among tertiary students with history of abortion. Family type, level of study and length of past abortion experience jointly predicted suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at [R2= 0.068; F (3,199) =5.396; p<.05]. However, only level of study was an independent predictor of suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at (ß=-.379, t=-4.143, p<.05).The results showed that the predictive relationship of self-blame, anxiety, depression on suicide ideation among female tertiary students with recent history of abortion experiences cannot be treated with kids’ gloves.  This finding and the additional findings that depression, anxiety, and self blame are also independently predictive of suicide ideation among college students have important clinical implications for suicide assessment and prevention.  It was recommended that suicide prevention programs, counseling centers, and psychology clinics on college campuses should include suicide attitudes such as depression, anxiety, and self-blame in their assessment and identification of individuals who may be at risk for engaging in suicide behavior.  


Adam G Horwitz; Ryan M Hill; Cheryl A King (2011) Specific coping behaviors in relation to adolescent depression and suicidal ideation. Journal of adolescence 34(5):1077-85.

Adinkrah, R. (2011). Suicide in young people aged 15-24: A psychological autopsy study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 159-170.

Ahadi Batool and Ariapooran Saeed, (2009). Role of Self and Other Forgiveness in Predicting Depression and Suicide Ideation of Divorcees. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9: 3598-3601.

Aldwin D & Revenson J (2007). Problem-solving, appraisal, self-blame, and suicidal ideation: Evidence for a mediational model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 91-98.

Anderson, R. N., & Smith, B. L. (2005). Deaths: Leading causes for 2002. National Vital Statistics Reports from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Systems, 33, 1-89.

Arata M & Burkhart, S. (1998). The roles of personality, stressful life events, meaning in life, reasons for living on suicidal ideation: A study in college students. Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health, 15, 52-57.

Arria, A. M., O'Grady, K. E., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., Wilcox, H. C., & Wish, E.D. (2009). Suicide ideation among college students: A multivariate analysis. Archives of Suicide Research, 13, 230-246.

Barnett N, Martinez K & Keyson D. (2006). A standard of care for the assessment of self blame suicide risk and associated treatment: The Florida State University Psychology Clinic as an example. Journal of Contemporary Psychology, 34, 87-99.

Baumeister, A. (1990). Suicide Escape Theory and Life Threatening Behavior, Journal of Death and Dying 25, 155-170.

Beck, A. T., & Mahoney, M. J. (1979). Schools of “thought”. American Psychologist, 34, 93-98.

Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A., (1998). Beck Hopelessness Scale Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77-100.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. (1993). Dysfunctional attitudes and suicidal ideation in psychiatric outpatients. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 23, 11-20.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-II Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Beck, A. T., Weissman, A, Lester, D., & Trexler, M. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865.

Ben-Zeev, Dror; Young, Michael A; Depp, Colin A; (2012) Real-time predictors of suicidal ideation: mobile assessment of hospitalized depressed patients. Psychiatry research vol. 197 issue 1-2

Berman V & Carroll S (1984). An analysis of suicidal ideation in a college sample. Archives of Suicide Research, 11, 41-56.

Berman V, Jobes A & Silverman B. (2006). Attitudes toward suicidal behavior: A review of the literature. Death Studies, 16, 31-43.

Brener, N. D., Hassan, S. S., & Barrios, L. C. (1999). Suicidal ideation among college students in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 1004-1008.

Breslau, B. (2005). Suicide as an outcome for anxiety: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 205-228.

Carver S & Scheier R. (1981). Pathways to suicide: A survey of self-destructive behaviors. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dervic, K., Oquendo, M. A., Grunebaum, M. F., Ellis, S., Burke, A. K., & Mann, J. J. (2004). Religious affiliation and suicide attempt. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 2303-2308.

Dobson D & Dobson B. (2009). Handbook of cognitive behavioural therapy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dobson D & Dozois K. (2003). Clinical assessment of suicide ideation: A factor analytic study. Social Science International, 19, 36-43. 42

Domino, G. (1996). Test-retest reliability of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 78, 1009-1010.

Domino, G., & Leenaars, A. A. (1989). Attitudes toward suicide: A comparison of Canadian and U.S. college students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 19, 160-172.

Domino, G., MacGregor, J. C., & Hannah, M. T. (1988). Collegiate attitudes toward suicide: New Zealand and United States. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 19, 351-364.

Domino, G., Su, S., & Shen, D. (2000). Cross-cultural investigation of a new set of scales for the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. Journal of Death and Dying, 41, 307-321.

Donahue, M. J. (1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 400-419.

Draucker T & Stern N. (2000). Effects of personal and situational factors on attitudes toward suicide. Journal of Death and Dying, 13, 127-144.

Eshun, S. (2003). Sociocultural determinants of suicide ideation: A comparison between American and Ghanaian college samples. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 33, 165-171.

Eskin, M. (2004). The effects of religious versus secular education on suicide ideation and suicidal attitudes in adolescents in Turkey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 536-542.

Garlow, S. J., Rosenberg, J., Moore, J. D., Haas, A. P., Koestner, B., Hendin, H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2008). Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: Results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory University. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 482-488.

Gibb, B. E., Andover, M. S., & Beach, R. H. (2006). Suicidal ideation and attitudes toward suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 36, 12-18.

Gildner S & Compas M. (1999). Childhood circumstances, adolescent adjustment and suicide attempts in a New Zealand birth cohort. Journal of American Academy Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 612-622.

Glinder G & Compas S. (2009). The role of gender and suicide precipitant in attitudes towards nonfatal suicidal behavior. Death Studies, 26, 99-116.

Gorsuch, R. L., & Venable, G. D. (1983). Development of an "Age Universal" I-E scale. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22, 181-187.

Graham D & Juvonen, L. (2008). Attitudes toward suicide: A factor analytic approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 257-262.

Heider, A. (1958). College students' views on suicide. Journal of American College Health, 44, 283-287.

Heisel, M. J., Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2003). Social hopelessness and college student suicide ideation. Archives of Suicide Research, 7, 221-235.

Hirsch, J. K., Conner, K. R., & Duberstein, P. R. (2007. Optimism and suicide ideation among young adult college students. Archives of Suicide Research, 11, 177-185.

Israelski, P., King, C. A., & Ghaziuddin, N. (2007). Adolescent attitudes about death in relation to suicidality. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 26, 8-18.

Janoff-Bulman N, Timko V, & Carlie, K. (2005). Self blame and attitudes toward suicide. Journal of Death and Dying, 25, 271-282.

Joe, S., Romer, D., & Jamieson, P. (2007). Suicide acceptability is related to suicide planning in U.S. adolescents and young adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37, 165-178.

Keilp JG, Grunebaum MF, Gorlyn M, LeBlanc S, Burke AK, Galfalvy H, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ (2012) Suicidal ideation and the subjective aspects of depression. J Affect Disord.; 140(1):75-81

Kinyanda E., Hjelmeland, H., Musisi, S., Kigozi, F. & Walugembe, J. (2005). Hopelessness and eventual suicide: A 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 559-563.

Kinyanda, E., Kizza R., Levin, J., Ndyanabangi, S., & Abbo, C. (2011). Suicide and serious suicide attempts in youth: A multiple-group comparison study. Journal of American Psychiatry, 160, 1093-1099.

Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1989). A psychometric analysis of the Allport-Ross and Feagin measures of intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation. In M. L. Lynn, & Moberg, D.O. (Ed.), Research in the social scientific study of religion: A research annual(Vol. 1, pp. 1-31). U.S.: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.

Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Hood, R. W. (1990). Intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation: The boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29, 442-462.

Kisch, J., Leino, E. V., & Silverman, M. M. (2005). Aspects of suicidal behavior, depression, and treatment in college students: Results from the Spring 2000

Konick, L. C., & Gutierrez, P. M. (2005). Testing a model of suicide ideation in college students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35, 181-192.

Kuo, W., Gallo, J. J., Eaton, W. W. (2004). Hopelessness, depression, substance disorder, and suicidality: A 13 year community-based study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 497-501.

Lim S & Choi H. (2011). National differences in predictors of suicide among young and elderly citizens: Linking societal predictors to psychological factors. Archives of Suicide Research, 10, 45-60.

Limbacher, M. L., & Domino, G. (1985). Attitudes toward suicide among attempters, contemplators, & non-attempters. Journal of Death and Dying, 16, 325-334.

Marks, A. (1988). Structural parameters of sex, race, age, and education and their influence on attitudes toward suicide. Journal of Death and Dying, 19, 327-336.

McAuliffe, C., Corcoran, P., Keeley, H. S., & Perry, I. J. (2003). Risk of suicide ideation associated with problem-solving ability and attitudes toward suicidal behavior in university students. The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 24, 160-167.

Meilman, P. W., Pattis, J. A., & Kraus-Zeilmann, D. (1994). Suicide attempts and threats on one college campus: Policy and practice. Journal of American College Health, 42, 147-154.

Meyer S & Taylor U. (2006). Definitions of suicidal behavior. In D. De Leo, Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkof, A., & Schmidtke, A. (Ed.), Suicidal behavior: Theory and research (pp. 17-39). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Miller H & Porter M. (1983). Suicide and depression among college students: A decade later. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32, 97-100.

Morrison, R., & O'Connor, R. C. (2005). Predicting psychological distress in college students: The role of rumination and stress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 447-460.

O’Neill & Kerig C. (2000). Parent-child relationships and suicidal ideation in French-Canadian adolescents. Journal of General Psychology, 154, 17-23.

Omigbodun, O., Dogra, N., Esan, O., & Adedokun, B (2008). Predicting suicide ideation in an adolescent population: Examining the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1279-1291.

Ovuga, E., Boardman, J., & Wassermann, D (2005). Personality traits and the development of depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1283-1291.

Parzola L. (2011). Suicide risk assessment in a college student population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 403-413.

Peterson M, Schwartz T & Seligman L (1981). Factors associated with suicidal phenomena in adolescents: A systematic review of population-based studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 957-979.

Rodin P & Voshart,, A. (2006). Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65,

Schlebusch D, Burrows M & Vawda,R. (2009). Attitudes toward suicide, religious values and suicidal behavior. In R. F. W. Diekstra, Maris, R., Platt, S., Schmidtke, A., & Sonneck, G. (Ed.), Suicide and its prevention: The role of attitude and imitation (pp. 78-90). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 34

Singh, R., & Joshi, H. L. (2008). Suicidal ideation in relation to depression, life stress and personality among college students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 259-265.

Spielberg V (2009). Suicidality and cognitive vulnerability to depression among college students: A prospective study. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 473-487.

Stein B. (2006). Differences in life stress and reasons for living among college suicide ideators and non-ideators. College Student Journal, 30, 377-386.

Stephenson, H., Pena-Shaff, J., & Quirk, P. (2006). Predictors of college student suicidal ideation: Gender differences. College Student Journal, 40, 109-117. 48

Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J; English, Diana J; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D (2012) Suicidal ideation in adolescence: examining the role of recent adverse experiences. Journal Of Adolescence Vol. 35 Issue 1

Ullman, S. E. and Najdowski, C. J. (2009), Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors. Suicide and Life-Threat Behaviour, 39: 47–57

Weiner. D. (1986). Negative attributional style for interpersonal events and the occurrence of severe interpersonal disruptions as predictors of selfreported suicidal ideation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 297-304.

Wortman A. (1983). Youth suicide prevention. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 31, 6-31.

Zung M & Klose P. (2007). Risky behaviors and factors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents. Archives of Suicide Research, 9, 193-202.

Zung WW (1965): A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry; 12:63–70

Zung WW (1971): A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 5:112–117