• Abiodun A ADEWOLE


Psychological impact, COVID-19 pandemic, Healthcare workers.


 The study examined the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on medical and allied healthcare workers in Ibadan. Oyo State, Nigeria, The study is explanatory in nature and adopted the exploratory research design. The population comprised ninety-three healthcare workers which consisted of 48 medical and 45 allied healthcare workers while three research questions were formulated. A validated Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales known as (DASS-21) with a reliability co-efficient value of 0.87 was used to gather relevant information. Data collected was analysed with mean, standard deviation and independent t-test. Findings revealed that both groups, Medical healthcare workers with a mean (±SD) score of 17.44(±15.75) and Allied healthcare workers with a Mean (±SD) score of 26.40(±22.06) experienced low psychological distress, however, independent t-test (t-cal= -2.116, df = 91, p < 0.05) revealed that the Allied group had a significant higher mean score than the Medical group. The study concluded by recommending that Industrial Social Workers should design intervention programmes in order to ensure the psychological wellbeing of healthcare workers. Furthermore, researches should be conducted to examine the long-term psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among all healthcare workers.   


Abdulmajeed A Alkhamees, Saleh A Alrashed,Ali A Alzunaydi, Ahmed S Almohimeed, Moath S Aljohani. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the general population of Saudi Arabia. Comprehensive psychiatry 102, 152192

Aljazeera news. (2020). Nigerian doctors embark on strike over lack of PPE/Welfare. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Bandyopadhyay S, Baticulon RE, Kadhum M, Alser M, Ojuka DK, Badereddin Y, et al. Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: A scoping review. medRxiv (2020). Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

British Breasting Corporation. (2020). Coronavirus: Greatest test since World War Two, says UN chief. Retrieved from: on 25:07:2020

Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, Rubin, GJ. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395(10227): 912–920.

Chew, N., Lee, G., Tan, B., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N., Yeo, L., Ahmad, A., Ahmed Khan, F., Napolean Shanmugam, G., Sharma, A. K., Komalkumar, R. N., Meenakshi, P. V., Shah, K., Patel, B., Chan, B., Sunny, S., Chandra, B., Ong, J., Paliwal, P. R & Sharma, V. K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain, behaviour, and immunity, 88, 559–565.

Chersich MF, Gray G, Fairlie L, Eichbaum Q, Mayhew S, Allwood B, English R, Scorgie F, Luchters S, Simpson G, Haghighi MM, Pham MD, Rees H (2020) COVID-19 in Africa: care and protection for frontline healthcare workers. Global Health 16:46

Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidermiology Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVIDâ€19) – China, (2020). China CDC Weekly2020; 2: 113– 22.

Economic Time. (2020). India doctors succumb to COVID-19. Retried from on 25:07:2020.

Elamin, M. M., Hamza, S. B., Abdalla, Y. A., Mohammed Mustafa, A. A., Altayeb, M. A., Mohammed , M. A., Alhusseini, R. T., & Abass, M. F. M. (2020). The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on health professionals in Sudan 2020. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences (SJMS), 15(5), 54-70.

Guardian News. (2020). 900 More than 900 US healthcare workers died from COVID-19. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Greenberg N, Wessely S, Wykes T. (2015). Potential mental health consequences for workers in the Ebola regions of West Africa – a lesson for all challenging environments. Journal of Mental Health, 24, 1, 1–3.

Jalloh MF, Li W, Bunnell RE, Ethier KA, O'Leary A, Hageman KM. (2018). Impact of Ebola experiences and risk perceptions on mental health in Sierra Leone. BMJ Global Health. 3(2):e000471.

Koh D. (2020). Occupational risks for COVID-19 infection. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 70(1), 3–5.

Kursumovic, E,Lennane, S & Cook, T. (2020). Deaths in healthcare workers due to COVIDâ€19: the need for robust data and analysis. Anaesthesia, 75, 8

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., Wu, J., Du, H., Chen, T., Li, R., Tan, H., Kang, L., Yao, L., Huang, M., Wang, H., Wang, G., Liu, Z., & Hu, S. (2020). Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Corona-virus Disease 2019. JAMA network open, 3(3), e203976.

Lancee WJ, Maunder RG, Goldbloom DS, Study S. (2008). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Toronto hospital workers one to two years after the SARS outbreak. Psychiatr Serv. 59(1):91–5

Lee, S. M., Kang, W. S., Cho, A. R., Kim, T., & Park, J. K. (2018). Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Comprehensive psychiatry, 87, 123–127.

Li, Z., Ge, J., Yang, M., Feng, J., Qiao, M., Jiang, R., Bi, J., Zhan, G., Xu, X., Wang, L., Zhou, Q., Zhou, C., Pan, Y., Liu, S., Zhang, H., Yang, J., Zhu, B., Hu, Y., Hashimoto, K., Jia, Y. & Yang, C. (2020). Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 88, 916–919.

Lovibond, S. H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales. (2nd Ed) Sydney: Psychology Foundation.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. (2020). Update of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. Retrieved from: on 25:07:2020.

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. (2020). The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Olaseni, A. O., Akinsola, O. S., Agberotimi, S. F., & Oguntayo, R. (2020). Psychological distress experiences of Nigerians amid COVID-19 pandemic. Social Sciences and Humanities Open. SSHO-D-20-00416.

Premium Times. (2020). JOHESU: Nigeria healthcare workers to commence strike. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Punch-health-wise. (2020). 812 healthcare workers infected with COVID-19. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Raven J, Wurie H. (2018). Witter S. Health workers’ experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone’s health system: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 18(1):251.

Tam CW, Pang EP, Lam LC, Chiu HF. (2004). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact among frontline healthcare workers. Psychol Med. 34(7):1197-1204

Tan BYQ, Chew NWS, Lee GKH, Jing M, Goh Y, Yeo LLL, Zhang K, Chin HK, Ahmad A, Khan FA, Shanmugam GN, Chan BPL, Sunny S, Chandra B, Ong JJY, Paliwal PR, Wong LYH, Sagayanathan R, Chen JT, Ng AYY, Teoh HL, Ho CS, Ho RC, Sharma VK. (2020). Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Singapore. Ann Intern Med. 173(4):317-320.

Telegraph. (2020). Italian Nurse commits suicide Retrieved from . on 25:07:2020.

The Independent News. (2020). 900 healthcare workers affected by COVID-19. Retrieved from on 25:07:2020.

Sah, M. H., Al-Sohime, F., Alamro, N., Al-Eyadhy, A., Al-Hasan, K., Jamal, A., Al-Maglouth, I., Aljamaan, F., Al Amri, M., Barry, M., Al-Subaie, S., & Somily, A. M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. Journal of infection and public health, 13(6), 877–882

Si, M., Su, X., Jiang, Y., Wang, W., Xiao, G., Li, M., Jing, L., Shao, Ze-Fang, Ran, R, Yuan, L & You, Q.(2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical care workers in China. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9, 113.

Worldometer. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic Live Update. Retrieved from On 25:07:2020.

World Health Organization. (2006). Definition of healthcare workers. (2006). Retrieved from on 5:07:2020.

World Health Organization. (2020). COVID-19 Situational Report on Healthcare Workers in Africa. Retrieved from on 25:07: 2020