SUBSTANCE USE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF ADOLESCENTS IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA: ASSESSING THE ROLE OF AGE

Onoja Matthew AKPA, Akinkunmi Paul OkEKUNLE

Abstract



 Aim: To assess whether Substance Use (SU) is associated with Psychosocial Function (PF) among adolescent.

Methods: Using a self-administered validated instrument, we obtained information on demographic, SU (defined as self-reported affirmative use of one or more of any form of alcoholic drinks, cigarettes, hemps etc) and PF [using the adolescent psychosocial functioning inventory comprising of three subscales; optimism and coping strategies (OCS), behaviour and relationship problems (BRP) and general psychosocial dysfunction designed (GPD)] among 2272 apparently healthy adolescents. PF was categorized as ‘elevated’ if the psychosocial functioning index (PFI) score were >75th percentile, otherwise, ‘not elevated’ and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of SU for elevated PF risk. In addition, we applied Johnson Neyman (JN) technique to identifying the JN significance regions at which age moderated the SU-PF relationship at a statistical significance of two-sided P<0.05.

Results: Prevalence of SU and elevated PF was 50.7% and 79.8% respectively. Prevalence of elevated PF differed insignificantly by sex, but the proportion of adolescent with elevated PFI on SU (82.6%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to those with elevated PFI but not on SU (76.9%). Multivariable-adjusted odds of decreased OCS risk given SU exposure was; OR (95%CI): 1.3791 (1.1458-1.6698), P=0.0007. Similarly, multivariable-adjusted odds of elevated PF risk in the light of SU exposure was; OR (95%CI): 1.4286 (1.1617-1.7567), P=0.0007. Furthermore, the JN significance regions for moderated regression analyses of odds of decreased OCS risk was between 10.4years [OR (95%CI): 0.5820 (0.1411-1.0228), P=0.0097] and 16.7years [OR (95%CI): 0.3025 (0.0001-0.6050), P=0.0500].

Conclusion: Adolescents on SU are about one and half times at risk of psychosocial dysfunction and age significantly attenuated the SU-decreased OCS risk link particularly in early adolescence.

 

 

 


Keywords


Substance use, Alcohol use, Psychosocial functioning, Adolescents, Moderated regression

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akpa, O. M. (2018). Multilevel analysis of psychosocial functioning of Adolescents in families affected by IV/AIDS

in Benue state, Nigeria. African Journal Biomedical Research, 21(2), 123-131.

Akpa, O. M., & Bamgboye, E. A. (2015). Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by

HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria. Vulnerable Child Youth Studies, 10(3), 225-242. doi:10.1080/17450128.2015.1066914

Akpa, O. M., Bamgboye, E. A., & Baiyewu, O. (2015). The Adolescents' Psychosocial Functioning Inventory

(APFI): scale development and initial validation using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

African Journal for the Psychological Study of Socical Issues, 18(1), 1-21.

Alhyas, L., Al Ozaibi, N., Elarabi, H., El-Kashef, A., Wanigaratne, S., Almarzouqi, A., . . . Al Ghaferi, H. (2015). Adolescents' perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open, 6(2), 2054270414567167. doi:10.1177/2054270414567167

Burke, P. J., O'Sullivan, J., & Vaughan, B. L. (2005). Adolescent substance use: brief interventions by emergency care providers. Pediatric Emergency Care, 21(11), 770-776.

Byrne, K. A., Otto, A. R., Pang, B., Patrick, C. J., & Worthy, D. A. (2018). Substance use is associated with reduced devaluation sensitivity. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural Neuroscience. doi:10.3758/s13415-018-0638-9

Coenen, M., Cabello, M., Umlauf, S., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Anczewska, M., Tourunen, J., . . . Cieza, A. (2016). Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(12), 1134-1145. doi:10.3109/09638288.2015.1074729

Degenhardt, L., & Hall, W. (2012). Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease. Lancet, 379(9810), 55-70. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61138-0

Foster, Katherine T., Arterberry, Brooke J., Iacono, William G., McGue, Matt, & Hicks, Brian M. (2018). Psychosocial functioning among regular cannabis users with and without cannabis use disorder. Psychological Medicine, 48(11), 1853-1861. doi:10.1017/S0033291717003361

Hartley, S., McArthur, M., Coenen, M., Cabello, M., Covelli, V., Roszczynska-Michta, J., . . . Cieza, A. (2014). Narratives reflecting the lived experiences of people with brain disorders: common psychosocial difficulties and determinants. PLoS One, 9(5), e96890. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096890

Jennison, Karen M. (2004). The Short‐Term Effects and Unintended Long‐Term Consequences of Binge Drinking in College: A 10‐Year Follow‐Up Study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 659-684. doi:10.1081/ADA-200032331

Kandel, D. B., Davies, M., Karus, D., & Yamaguchi, K. (1986). The consequences in young adulthood of adolescent drug involvement. An overview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(8), 746-754.

Kowalski, C. J., Schneiderman, E. D., & Willis, S. M. (1994). ANCOVA for nonparallel slopes: the Johnson-

Neyman technique. International Journal of Biomedical Computing, 37(3), 273-286.

Manyike, P. C., Chinawa, J. M., Chinawa, A. T., Obu, H. A., Nwokocha, A. R. C., & Odetunde, O. I. (2016). Correlates for psycho-active substance use among boarding secondary school adolescents in Enugu, South East, Nigeria. BMC Pediatric, 16, 78. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0615-9

Martino, Steven C., Collins, Rebecca L., & Ellickson, Phyllis L. (2004). Substance Use and Early Marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(1), 244-257. doi:doi:10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00018.x

Merline, A. C., O'Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2004). Substance use among adults 35 years of age: prevalence, adulthood predictors, and impact of adolescent substance use. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 96-102.

Newcomb, Michael D., Galaif, Elisha R., & Carmona, Jennifer Vargas. (2001). The drug–crime nexus in a community sample of adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(3), 185-193. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.15.3.185

Nguyen-Louie, Tam T., Matt, Georg E., Jacobus, Joanna, Li, Irene, Cota, Claudia, Castro, Norma, & Tapert, Susan F. (2017). Earlier Alcohol Use Onset Predicts Poorer Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adults. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 41(12), 2082-2092. doi:10.1111/acer.13503

Ogunsola, O. O., & Fatusi, A. O. (2016). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: a comparative study of secondary school students in rural and urban areas of Osun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 29(3). doi:10.1515/ijamh-2015-0096

Olagunju, A. T., Ogundipe, O. A., Olagunju, T. O., Campbell, O. A., Aina, O. F., & Akanmu, A. S. (2017). PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE USE AMONG NIGERIAN COHORT WITH HIV/AIDS: FREQUENCY, TYPES AND DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 55(1), 35-41.

Olumide, A. O., Robinson, A. C., Levy, P. A., Mashimbye, L., Brahmbhatt, H., Lian, Q., . . . Blum, R. W. (2014). Predictors of substance use among vulnerable adolescents in five cities: findings from the well-being of adolescents in vulnerable environments study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(6 Suppl), S39-47. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.024

Ro, E., & Clark, L. A. (2009). Psychosocial functioning in the context of diagnosis: assessment and theoretical issues. Psychological Assessment, 21(3), 313-324. doi:10.1037/a0016611

Rohde, Paul, Lewinsohn, Peter M., Seeley, John R., Klein, Daniel N., Andrews, Judy A., & Small, Jason W. (2007). Psychosocial functioning of adults who experienced substance use disorders as adolescents. Psychology of addictive behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 155-164. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.21.2.155

Rose, M. E., & Grant, J. E. (2010). Alcohol-induced blackout. Phenomenology, biological basis, and gender differences. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 4(2), 61-73. doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181e1299d

Silins, E., Horwood, L. J., Najman, J. M., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., Olsson, C. A., . . . Mattick, R. P. (2018). Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: an integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts. Addiction, 113(10), 1811-1825. doi:10.1111/add.14263

Spooner, Catherine, Mattick, Richard P., & Noffs, Wesley. (2000). A study of the patterns and correlates of substance use among adolescents applying for drug treatment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(5), 492-502. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2000.tb00499.x

Toumbourou, J. W., Stockwell, T., Neighbors, C., Marlatt, G. A., Sturge, J., & Rehm, J. (2007). Interventions to reduce harm associated with adolescent substance use. Lancet, 369(9570), 1391-1401. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60369-9

Vlahov, D., Galea, S., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Boscarino, J. A., Bucuvalas, M., . . . Kilpatrick, D. (2002). Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(11), 988-996.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.