HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION AMONG THE YORUBA OF SOUTH-WESTERN
The Yoruba of South-Western Nigeria emerged as a distinct language group around 2000 BC to 1000 BC. The Yoruba developed kingship political system around 1000 BC. This article elucidates the significant features of Yoruba traditional political culture and socialization, which depends enormously on political symbols and language for the legitimisation of political domination.
Moreover, the article presents the family, as the traditional basic unit of indigenous political administration, with chiefs representing the interest of respective families in central administration. This afforded the provision of checks and balances on the Oba (King), as he could not run contrary to the expectation of his subjects without grave consequences. Real political powers were thus reposed in the king’s subjects, represented by their chiefs. Political authority was therefore vested in the ‘social’ rather than the ‘individual’. Colonization brought about transformations in Yoruba political culture as people’s power was taken, harnessed and reposed in the Oba who henceforth became answerable to colonial officials. The tide changed as South-Western Nigeria gained self-governance and the new indigenous elite rulers enacted laws, which transferred powers held by traditional rulers to themselves. Subsequently, new clientelistic structure evolved in Yorubaland wherein patrons and clients engage in exchange relations. This has been the situation ever since modern government was introduced and it has remained fundamental to stability in Yoruba political structure, its potential detrimental implications to development.
Adebanwi, W. (2004) “Hegemony and Spatial Politics: The Press and the Struggle for Lagos in Colonial Nigeria”. Africa Development / Afrique Et Développement, 29(4): 75-91.
Adebayo, A. (1994) “Money, Credit, and Banking in Precolonial Africa. The Yoruba Experience”. Anthropos, 89(4/6), 379-400.
Adediran, B (1989) “In search of Identity? The Eastern Yoruba and Oduduwa Tradition” ODU 36: 114 – 136.
Adepegba, C. (1986) “The Descent from Oduduwa: Claims of Superiority among Some Yoruba Traditional Rulers and the Arts of Ancient Ife”. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 19(1): 77-92. doi:10.2307/218696.
Adi, H. (2000) “Pan-Africanism and West African Nationalism in Britain”. African Studies Review, 43(1): 69-82. doi:10.2307/524721
Agiri, B. (1975) “Early Oyo History Reconsidered”. History in Africa, 2: 1-16. doi:10.2307/3171463
Ajayi, J.F.A and S.A. Akintoye (1980) “Yorubaland in the Nineteenth Century” in Ikime (ed) Groundwork of Nigerian History (Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria Plc) 1999 reprint pp 280 – 302
Akintoye, S.A. (1971) Revolution and Power Politics in Yorubaland 1840 – 1893 (London: Longman Group Limited).
Akinyele, R.T. (2001) “Ethnic Militancy and National Stability in Nigeria: A case Study of the Oodua People’s Congress” African Affairs 100: 623 – 640.
Alanamu, T. (2016) “Yoruba Childhood”. Transition, 121: 92-106.
Arifalo, S.O. (1981) “Egbe Omo Oduduwa : Structure and Strategy” ODU New Series 21: 73 – 91.
Arifalo, S.O. (1988) “The Egbe Omo Oduduwa and Yoruba Irredentism 1949 – 1958” ODU New series 34: 82 – 101.
Asiwaju, A.I (1980) “The Western Provinces under Colonial Rule” in O. Ikime (ed) Ground Work of Nigerian history (Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Plc) 1999 reprint pp 429 – 445.
Atanda, J.A. (1980) An Introduction to Yoruba History (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press).
Atanda, J.A. (1996) “The Yoruba People. Their Origin, Culture and Civilization” in O.O. Olatunji (ed) The Yoruba: History Culture & Language (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press) pp.3 – 34
Ayoade, J.A. (1985) “Party and Ideology in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Action Group”. Journal of Black Studies, 16(2): 169-188.
Balogun, K. (1985) Government in Old Oyo Empire (Lagos: Africanus Publishers and Co).
Bascom, W. (1955) “Urbanization Among the Yoruba”. American Journal of Sociology, 60(5): 446-454.
Blier, S. (2012) “Art in Ancient Ife, Birthplace of the Yoruba” African Arts, 45(4): 70-85.
Bourne, R. (2015) Nigeria: A New History of a Turbulent Century, London: Zed Books.
Clark, J.D. (1977) “The Spread of Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa” in Z.A. Konczacki and J.M. Konczacki (eds) An Economic History of Tropical Africa: The Precolonial Period Vol.1 (London: Frank Cass and Company Ltd) pp 3 – 13.
Clarke, K. (2002) “Governmentality, Modernity and the Historical Politics of Ọ̀yọ́-Hegemony in Yorùbá Transnational Revivalism” Anthropologica, 44(2), 271-293. doi:10.2307/25606086
David, N and J. Sterner (1999) “Wonderful Society’ The Burgess Shale Creatures, Mandara Polities, and the nature of Prehistory” in S.K. McIntosh (ed) Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathway to Complexity in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press) pp 97 – 109.
Derricourt, R. (2011) Inventing Africa: History, Archaeology and Ideas. New York: Pluto Press.
Fadipe N.A. (1970) The Sociology of the Yoruba (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press)
Falola, T (1981) ”Power Drift in the Political System of South Western Nigeria in the 19th Century”. ODU New Series 21: 109 – 127.
Fandrich, I. (2007). Yorùbá Influences on Haitian Vodou and New Orleans Voodoo. Journal of Black Studies, 37(5): 775-791.
Gboyeya, A. (2003) Democracy and Development: The Imperative of Local Good Governance. An Inaugural Lecture delivered on behalf of the Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Gordon, J. (1979) “Yoruba Cosmology and Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World”. Journal of Black Studies, 10(2): 231-244.
Ikelegbe, A. (2001) “The Perverse Manifestation of Civil Society: Evidence from Nigeria”. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 39(1), 1-24.
Johnson, S. (1921) The History of the Yorubas. Lagos: C.S.S. Bookshops.
Joseph, R (1991) Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria: The Rise and Fall of the Second Republic (Ibadan: Spectrum Book Limited).
Lange, D (1995) “Ife and the Origin of the Yoruba: Historiographical Considerations” IFE: Annals of the Institute of Cultural Studies 6: 39 – 49.
Lawuyi, O. (1992) “The Obatala Factor in Yoruba History” History in Africa, 19, 369-375. DOI:10.2307/3172006
Munoz, L. (1981) “Political Representation In The Traditional Yoruba Kingdoms”. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 10 (4), 21-29.
Nolte, I. (2008). “Without Women, Nothing Can Succeed': Yoruba Women in the Oodua People's Congress (OPC), Nigeria” Africa 78 (1), 84-106.
Obadare, E. (1999) “Democratic Transition and Political Violence in Nigeria”. Africa Development / Afrique Et Développement, 24(1/2), 199-219.
Olurode, O. (1996) “Grassroots Politics, Political Factions and Conflict in Nigeria: the Case of Iwo, 1976-1986”. Rural Africana 25-26:113-124.
Olutayo, A. O. (2012) “Verstehen,’ Everyday Sociology And Development: Incorporating African indigenous knowledge” Critical Sociology DOI: 0896920512446094
Omobowale, A., & Fayiga, O. (2017) “Commercial Motor Drivers, Transport Unions and Electoral Violence in Ibadan, Nigeria”. Development and Society, 46(3): 591-614.
Omobowale, A.O. (2006) Political Clientelism and Rural Development in Selected Communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. A PhD Thesis in the Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Omobowale, A.O. (2008a) “Clientelism and Social Structure: An Analysis of Patronage in Yoruba Social Thought”. Afrika Spectrum 43 (2): 203-224.
Omobowale, A.O. (2008b) “Culture, Policy-Making and Development in Nigeria”. Ilorin Journal of Business and Social Sciences. 11 (1 and 2): 325-339.
Omobowale, A.O. (2014) “An Ethnographic Textual Analysis of Aging and the Elders in South Western Nigeria”. Canadian Journal of Sociology 39 (2): 211-230.
Omobowale, A.O. (2015) “Stories of the “Dark” Continent: Crude Constructions, Diasporic Identity, and International Aid to Africa”. International Sociology 30 (2): 108-118
Omobowale, A.O. (2018a) “The Roots of Division, Activism and Civil Society in Nigeria”. International Sociology 33(5): 558–567
Omobowale, A.O. (2018b) The Visions Of Context: Universalism, Modernity And Social Contextual Interpretations. Twenty-Third Faculty of the Social Sciences Lecture. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Omobowale, A.O. and Akanle, O. (2017) “Asuwada Epistemology and Globalised Sociology: Challenges of the South”. Sociology 51 (1): 43-59 DOI: 10.1177/0038038516656994
Otite, O. (1977) “Symbols and Sentiments in Nigerian Politics” The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3 (1): 33 – 53.
Otite, O. (2002) “Perspectives on National Integration in Multicultural Societies: A Nigerian View” in U.C. Isiugo – Abanihe, A.N Isamah and J.O. Adesina (eds) Currents and Perspectives in Sociology (Lagos: Malthouse Press Limited) pp 163 – 174.
Perham, M (1962) Native Administration in Nigeria (London: Oxford University Press).
Pratten, D. (2008) “Introduction. The Politics of Protection: Perspectives on Vigilantism in Nigeria”. Africa 78(1): 1-15.
Tocqueville, A. (1986) “The French Revolution and The Growth of the State” in J.A. Goldstone (ed) Revolutions: Theoretical, Comparative and Historical Studies (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) pp 30 – 31.
Vaughan, O. (2003) “Chieftaincy Politics and Communal Identity in Western Nigeria, 1893-1951”. The Journal of African History, 44(2): 283-302.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.