A SURVEY OF VICTIMS OF FIVE FORMS OF STALKING AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THEAVAILABLE SUPPORT AMONGST THE STUDENT POPULATION, UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER, UK.
A number of studies have highlighted that stalking victimisation is a problem amongst student populations. However, little work has considered the extent of victimisation, types of stalking and levels of reporting with UK student population. Therefore, this paper explores stalking amongst students at Leicester. Using survey data from 477 students enrolled at the University of Leicester, the current study assesses the extent of five forms of stalking incidents amongst the sampled population, determines the nature of relationship that exists between victims of stalking and their perpetrators and evaluates the stalking victim’s attitude towards reporting their victimisation. Results from the study reveal: 147 victims, lifetime stalking prevalence 30.8% and 26.0% for cyber stalking. Female students had a higher prevalence 36% than males 23%. Victims in the survey experienced an average of 1.7 stalking incident each (stalking concentration) at the rate of 52 victims to 100 stalking incidents (stalking incidence).The most common form of stalking incidents was unwanted electronic communication 49.4% via telephone 29.1%. Most of the victims were electronically stalked for intimacy by someone they knew. There was a significant positive relationship between violent behaviours and other forms of stalking incidents. More than two third did not seek help; more than half of those that did were from family and friends and less than half of the identified victims would seek counselling help. Findings are discussed in terms of both theoretical and policy implications.
Alexy, E. Burgess, A.Baker, T. and Smoyak, S.(2005) ' Perceptions of Cyber stalking Among College Students'
Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 5(3):279-289.
Amar, A. (2006)' Behaviour that college women label as stalking or harassment' American Psychiatric Nurses
Association, 13 (4) 210- 220.
BBC News (2011a)Young Stalking Victims are reluctant to Tell Police,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/12679107,(Accessed 18th June, 2013).
BBC News (2011b) University opens cyber-stalking research centre ,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk england-beds-bucks-herts-13035602 ,(Accessed 18th June, 2013).
Bjerregard, B. (2002)' An Empirical study of stalking Victimisation' in K.E. Davis, R.D. and Maiuro (eds) Stalking:
Perspectives on victims and Perpetrators, New York: Springer Publishing Company, 112-137.
Björklund, K., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. , Sheridan, L and Roberts, L. (2010)'The Prevalence of Stalking Among Finnish
University Students' Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25 (4) :684-698.
Brace, I. (2004) Questionnaires Design, London: Kogan Page.
Brewster, M.(2003) 'The Criminal Justice System's Response to Stalking' in M.P. Brewester (ed.)Stalking:
Psychology, Risk Factors, Interventions and Law, New Jersey: Civic Research Institute 3:1-3:21.
Buhi, E. , Clayton, C. and Surrency, H. (2009)' Stalking Victimization Among College Women and Subsequent Help-
Seeking Behaviors' Journal of American College Health, 57(4,): 419-426.
Cass, A. and Rosay, A. (2012) 'College Student Perceptions of Criminal Justice System Responses to Stalking' Sex
Cupach, W. and Spitzberg, B. (2004) The Dark Side of Relationship Pursuit: From Attraction to Obssession and
Stalking, New Jersey: LEA Publishers.
Cupach, W. and Spitzberg, B. (2001)' Obsessive Relational Intrusion: Incidence , Perceived Severity and Coping' in
K.E. Davis, R.D. and Maiuro (eds) Stalking: Perspectives on victims and Perpetrators, New York: Springer
Publishing Company , 138-160.
Donn, J. and Sherman, R. (2002) ‘Attitudes and practices regarding the formation of romantic relationships on the
Internet’, Cyber psychology and Behavior, 5( 2):107–123.
Drouin, M., and Carly L.(2012) 'Texting, Sexting and Attachment in College Students Romantic Relationships'
Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2 ): 444-49.
Finn, J. (2004) 'A Survey of Online Harassment at a University Campus' Journal of Interpersonal violence.
Fisher, B., Cullen, F. and Michael, G. (2000) Stalking on College Campuses - The National College Women
Sexual Victimization Study (NCWSV), http://www.thewell.vcu.edu/docs/stalking_statistics.pdf,
(Accessed 11th June, 2013).
Fisher, B. and John J. (2007)' Campus Crime Policy: Legal, Social and Security Contexts' in B.S. Fisher and
J.J. Solan (2n ed) Campus Crime : Legal, Social and Policy Perspective, Illinois: Charles Thomas,
Hart, C., and Violet, C. (2011) 'College Student Victims and Reporting Crime to the Police: The Influence
of Collective Efficacy " Western Criminology Review 12 (3):1-19.
Jordan, C. , Wilcox, P., and Pritchard, A (2007)'Stalking acknowledgement and reporting among college
women experiencing intrusive behaviors: Implications for the emergence of a classic stalking case'
Journal of Criminal Justice, 35: 556-569.
Kraft, E. and Wang, J.(2010)'An exploratory study of the Cyber bullying and Cyber stalking experiences
and factors related to victimization of students at a public liberal Arts College' International
Journal of Technoethics, 1(4):74-91.
Leedy, P. and Ormrod, J. (2013) Practical Research: Planning and Design (10th eds.), New Jersey :Pearson.
Lindsay, M. and Krysik, J. (2012)'Online Harassment among College Students' Information, Communication and
Society,15 (5) 703-719.
Lunenburg, F.(2011)'Expectancy Theory Of Motivation: Motivating By Altering Expectations' International Journal of
Management, Business, And Administration, 15 (1):1-6.
MacKenzie, R., Mullen, P., Ogloff,J. and James, D. (2008) ' Parental Bonding and Adult Attachment Styles in
Different Types of Stalker' Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(6):1443-1449.
McVeigh, K.(2011) Cyberstalking 'now more common' than face-to-face stalkinghttp://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/08/cyberstalking-study-victims-men,
(Accessed,11th June 2013).
Miller, J. (2012)'Individual Offending, Routine Activities, and Activity Settings: Revisiting the Routine
Activity Theory of General Deviance' Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50 (3) 390-416.
Mullen, P. Pathe, M. and Purcell, R. (2000) Stalkers and their victims, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mustaine, E andTewksbury,R.(1999)'A Routine Activity Theory Explanation for Women's Stalking Victimizations'
Violence Against Women, 5: 43-62.
National Union of Students (2010) Hidden Marks: A study of Women Students' experiences of Harassment, Stalking,
Violence and Sexual Assault, London: NUS.
Osterholm, K.,Horn, D. and Kritsonis, W. (2007) 'College Professors as Potential Victims of Stalking: Awareness and
Prevention: National Implications' Focus o n Colleges, Universities, and Schools Volume 1(1):1-7.
Parsons-Pollard, N. and Moriarty, L. (2009) 'Cyber stalking: Utilizing What We do Know, Victims and Offenders' An
International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice, 4(4) :435-441
Patton ,C., Nobles, M.. and Fox, K. (2010) 'Look who's stalking: Obsessive pursuit and attachment theory 'Journal of
Criminal Justice 38: 282–290.
Protection of Freedoms Act (2012) Stalking,http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/9/pdfs/ukpga_20120009_en.pdf, (Accessed 7th June, 2013).
Ravensberg, V., and Miller, C. (2003) 'Stalking among young adults: A review of the preliminary research'
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8 (4), 455-470.
Richards, L., Fletcher, H. and Jewell, D. (2012) Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Stalking Law Reform: Main
Finding and Recommendation, Watford: The Justice Unions’ Parliamentary Group.
Roberts, A. (2005)'Associated Characteristics of Stalking following the termination of Romantic Relationship'Applied
Psychology in Criminal Justice 1(1): 15-35.
Smock, J. (2003)'Addressing Stalking at work : what women and Advocates can do' in M.P. Brewester (ed)Stalking:
Psychology, Risk Factors, Interventions and Law, New Jersey: Civic Research Institute13:1-13:19.
Spitzberg, B. and Cadiz, M.(2002)' The Media Contruction of stalking sterotypes ' Journal of Criminal Justice and
Popular Culture, 9(3): 128 -149.
Spitzberg, B, and Hobbler G. (2002)'Cyber stalking and the technologies of interpersonal terrorism' New Media and
Society, 4 (1): 67-88.
Truman, J. and Mustaine, E. (2009)'Strategies for College Student Stalking Victims: Examining the Information and
Recommendations Available' Criminal Justice Association, 34:69–83.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.