WORK STRESS ADAPTATION: ROLES OF GENDER, SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PERSONALITY
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental sampling techniques, a total of 210 civil servants (78 males and 132 females) from 10 Government Ministries in Akure, Ondo State were sampled. Participants completed measures of Type A behavior scale, Perceived social support scale and Job stress scale. One hypothesis was formulated and tested using 2×2×2 ANOVA analysis. The results revealed that gender (F (1,202) = 9.938, p < 0.05), social support (F(1,202)=20.263, p<0.01) and personality (F (1,202) = 12.630, p < 0.01) had significant effects on work stress adaptation. However, there were no significant interaction effects of gender, social support and personality on work stress adaptation. The findings suggested that males, type A persons and civil servants with high social support were found to exhibit a higher level of work stress adaptation. The implications of the findings were discussed and appropriate recommendations were made.
Afolabi, O.A. & Aigbodion, A.I. (2006). Industrial and personnel psychology: A modern approach. Benin: Ever-blessed.
Afolabi, O.A. & Imhonde, H.O. (2002). Situational factors in work behavior and incidence of stress. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, 126-137.
Agbu, J.O. (1999). Assessment and management of Type A behavior among postgraduate students. Unpublished M.Sc.Project. University of Lagos, Nigeria.
Arnold, J., Cooper, C.L. & Robertson, I.T. (1995). Work Psychology: Understanding human behavior in the work place. UK: Pitman Publishing
Beehr, T.A. Jex, S.M., Stacy, B.A. & Murray, M.A. (2000). Work Stressors and coworker support as predictors of individual strain and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 21, 405.
Booth-Kewley, S. & Friedman, H.S. (1987). Psychological predictors of heart disease: A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 101,343-362.
Dorman, C. & Zapf, D. (1999). Social support, stressors at work and depressive symptoms: Testing for main moderating effects with structural equations in a three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 874-884.
French, J.R.P., Caplan, R.D. & Harison, R.V. (1982). Mechanisms of job stress and strain. New York: John Wiley.
Fresse, M. (1999). Social support as a moderator of relationship between work stressors and psychological dysfunction: a longitudinal study with objective measures. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(3), 179-192
Friedman, M. & Rosenman, R.H. (1974). Type A Behaviour and your Heart. New York : Knopf.
International Labour Organization.(2001). What is workplace stress? Retrieved July, 22, 2005 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safe/work/stress/whatis.htm#gender.
Karasek, R.A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 24, 285-308.
Korabik, K., McDonald, L.M. & Rosin, H.M. (1993). Stress,coping, and social support among women managers. In B.C.Long & S.E.Kahn (Eds.) Women, work, coping: A multidisciplinary approach to workplace stress. (pp. 133-153). McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Matud, M.P. (2004). Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1401-1415.
Maddi, S.R., Bartone, P. T. & Puccetti, M.C. (1987). Stressful events are indeed a factor in physical illness: Reply. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 833-843.
NISOH (1999). Stress at work: U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NISOH). Publication Number 99-101.
Omoluabi, P.F. (1997). The development of TABS: A unified scale assessing Type A behavior pattern. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Lagos.
Payne, R. (1980). “Organizational stress and support” In C.L. Cooper and R. Payne (eds). Current concerns in occupational stress. New York: John Wiley.
Price, V.A. (1982). Type A behavior pattern: A model for research and practice. New York: Academic Press.
Ptacek, J.T., Smith, R.E. & Dodge, K.L. (1994). Gender differences in coping with stress: When stressor and appraisals do not differ. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(4), 421-430.
Quick, J.C. & Quick, J.D. (1984). Organisational stress and preventive management. New York: McGraw-Hill
Rosenman, R.H. (1978). The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern . In T.M. Dembroski, S.M. Weiss, J.L. Shields, S.G.Haynes, & M.Feinlib (Eds), Coronary-prone behavior (pp.55.69). New York: Springer-Verlag
Schaubroeck, J., Ganster, D. C. & Kemmerer, B.E. (1994). Job complexity, Type A behavior, and cardiovascular disorder: A prospective study. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 426-439.
Theorell, T. (1988). The demands-control-support model for studying health in relation to the work environment: an interactive model. In K. Orth-Gomer & N. Schnelderman (Eds), Behavioural medicine approaches to cardiovascular diseases. pp.69-85. Toronto, Canada: Multi Health System.
Uchino, B.N., Cacioppo, J.T. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119,488-531
Umeh, C.U. (2012). Social support in social relationships: An empirical investigation. An unpublished M.Sc. project. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Wainwright, D., & Calnan, M. (2002). Work Stress: The making of a modern epidemic. Bucking: Open University Press.
Way, M., & MacNeil, M. (2006). Organizational characteristics and their effects on health. Nursing Economics, 24 (2), 67-77.
Wellness Group (2013). How do personality types impact people's responses to stress? Retrieved online on August 27, 2013 form http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/stress- management/personality-types-impact-on-response-to-stress.htm
Wichert, I. (2002). Job insecurity and work intensification: The effects on health and well-being. In B.Burchell, D.Lazdipo, & F. Wikenson (Eds.) Job insecurity and work intensification (pp. 92-111). NY: Rutledge.
Williams, V.R. (2003). Sources of workplace stress perspectives, June 2003. Retrieved July 13, 2013 from http.//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karoshi.
Zimet, G.D., N.W., Zimet, S.G & Farley, G.K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.