GENOCIDE, VIOLENT INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS IN AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: SOME CRITICAL REFLECTIONS
This article examines violent internal armed conflicts in Africa within the context of international law, particularly the genocide convention. Africa, the article notes, is home to many cases of internal or intra-state armed conflicts in which heinous and egregious crimes are perpetrated. However, while heinous acts committed in the conflicts are hardly treated as genocide or contested as untrue, the article argues that they truly are, if the notion of genocide is properly understood. It concludes that noncompliance with the efforts of the International Criminal Court (ICC) by the AU and some African leaders, and the threat of withdrawal by some States from the institution is a tacit support for impunity.
Aboagye, F. B. (2009). Confronting complex emergencies in Africa: Imperatives of a search for a new doctrine of humanitarian ‘security’ interventions. Pretoria: ISS Paper 204: 1-38.
Aboagye, F.B (2007). “Introduction: Motivations and Dynamic Issues of Post-Cold War Security Issues in Africa.” In Festus B. Aboagye (ed.) Complex Emergencies in the 21st Century: Challenges of New Africa’s Strategic Peace and Security Policy Issues. Pretoria: ISS Monograph Series No. 134, 1-12
Adejumobi, S. (2004) Conflict and Peace building in West Africa: the role of Civil Society and the African Union, International Policy Institute, Garfax Publishing, 4.1, 60
Akanji, O. O. (2008). “Identity-based conflicts in Africa: the case of Ife –Modakeke, Nigeria.” In B. Zewde (ed.) Society, State and Identity in African History. Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies (FSS), 201-216.
Amnesty International (2016/17). Sudan 2016/17. Annual Report, (online).Available at https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/sudan/report-sudan/, [Accessed 15 May 2017
Anan, K. (1998). The causes of conflicts and promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, Report of the General Secretary to the Security Council of the United Nations. New York: UN
Anderson, M.B. (1999). Do No Harm: How AID can support peace-or war. Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner
Aras, D. (2011). Sudan’s Ticking Time Bombs. Middle East Quarterly. 18(4): 79-84
BBC News (2017). African Union backs mass withdrawal from ICC. BBC News. 1 February 20017. Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38826073, (Accessed 30 May 2017)
Chalks, F. and Jonassohn, K. (1990). The history and sociology of genocide: analysis and case studies. Yale: Yale University Press
Charny, I. (1999). Encyclopedia of Genocide. ABC-Clio Inc. l
Council of Europe (2007). Judgment. Case of Jorgic vs. Germany. Available at https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/812753/pdf/, [Accessed 15 May 2017].
Deng, F.M. (2001). Sudan-Civil War and Genocide: the Disappearing Christians of the Middle East, Middle East Quarterly. Winter Vol. III, No. 1, [Online] Available in http://www.meforum.org/22/sudan-civil-war-and-genocide (Accessed 17 February 2017)
Drumbl, M.A. (2005). Pluralizing the International Criminal Justice. Michigan Law Review. 103(6): 1294-1328
Drost, P. (1959). The Crime of State, Vol. 2, Leiden
Eriksson, M., Sollenberg, M. and Wallensteen, P. (2002). Patterns of Major Armed Conflicts, 1990 – 2001. SIPRI Yearbook, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Falola, T. and Heaton, M. (2008). A History of Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Fein, H. (1993). Genocide: A Sociological Perspective. London.
Harff, B. and Gurr, T. (1988). Toward empirical theory of genocide and politicides. International Studies Quarterly, 37:3.
Horowitz, I. R. (2001). Taking Lives: Genocide and State Power, 5th Edition. Transaction Publishers
Human Rights Watch. (2017). South Sudan: Events of 2016. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017. Available at https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017/country-chapters/south-sudan. (Accessed 30 May 2017).
Huttenbach, H. (1988). Locating the holocaust on the genocide spectrum: towards a methodology of definition and categorization. Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 3(3), 389-403.
ICRC. (1949). The Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. Available at https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/publications/icrc-002-0173.pdf, [Accessed 15 May 2017]
Iliffe, John. 1995. Africans: The history of a continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
International Criminal Court (2010). Al Bashir Case: the Prosecutor vs. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir. International Criminal Court. Available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/darfur/albashir, (Accessed 30 May 2017)
International Criminal Court (1998). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/ea9aeff7-5752-4f84-be94-0a655eb30e16/0/rome_statute_english.pdf,
[Accessed 15 May 2017].
International Crisis Group (2015). The Chaos in Darfur. Crisis Group Africa, Briefing No. 110, [online]. Available at https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/b110-the-chaos-in-darfur.pdf [Accessed 15 May 2017]
Minorities Right Group (2008). “Peoples under Threat” Minority Rights Group International: World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. Available at http://www.minorityrights.org/peoplesunderthreat (Accessed 12 January 2010)
Ntoubadi, F.Z. (2013). What Actions does the Genocide Convention Require from States? Sentinel Project. Available at https://thesentinelproject.org/2013/08/01/what-specific-actions-does-the-genocide-convention-require-from-states/ (Accessed 25 May, 2017)
Obi, C. I. (2010). The petroleum industry: A paradox or (sp)oiler of development. Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 28(4): 443-457
O’Connor, G.E. (1999). The Pursuit of justice and accountability: Why the United States should support the establishment of an International Criminal Court. Hofstra Law Review. 27(4): 927-977.
Onwubiko, E. (2001). Igbo Losses Counted at Oputa Panel, The Guardian, 26 July 2001 Available at www.allAfrica.com (Accessed 23 January 2009).
Paris, R. (2004). At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Raji, A.O.Y. and Abejide, T.S. (2013). Oil and Biafra: An assessment of the SHELL-BP’s Dilemma during the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(11): 15-32
Rummel, R.J. (1997). Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. Available on http://www.hawai.edu/powerkills/NOTE1.HTM. (Accessed 15 January 2015)
Schabas, W. (1999). Genocide Convention at 50. United States Institute for Peace. Special Report. Available at https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/sr990107.pdf (Accessed 28 May, 2017)
SIPRI. (2016). SIPRI Year Book 2016: Armament, Disarmament and International Security. (Online extract). Available at https://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2016/06 (Accessed 25 May 2017)
Stanton, G. H. (2002). What is Genocide? Genocide Watch. Available at http://www.genocidewatch.org/genocide/whatisit.html (Accessed 25 May, 2017)
Tamuno, T. N. (1989). Introduction: Men and Measures in the Nigerian Crisis, 1969-1970, In Tamuno, T. N. and S. C. Ukpabi, Nigeria since Independence. The first twenty-five years, The Civil War Years, vol. VI. Ibadan: HEB and Panel on Nigeria since Independence History Project.
Thompson, J.L.P. and Quets, G.A. (1990) “Genocide and Social Conflict: A partial theory and comparison.” In L. Kriesberg (ed.) Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change. Vol. 12, Greenwood, CN: JAI Press, 245-266.
U.N. (2017). United Nations Treaty Collection. Chapter IV. Human Rights. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Available at https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4〈=e (Accessed 25 May, 2017)
U.N. (2004). International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia Since 1991. Judgment. [Online]. Available at http://www.icty.org/x/cases/krstic/acjug/en/krs-aj040419e.pdf, [Accessed 15 May 2017].
U.N. (1979). Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977. United Nations – Treaty Series. [Online]. Available at https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%201125/volume-1125-i-17513-english.pdf, [Accessed 15 May 2017].
U.N. (1951). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crimes of Genocide (CPPCG). United Nations-Treaty Series. Available at https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%2078/volume-78-i-1021-english.pdf, [Accessed 15 May 2017].
Wallimann, I. and Dobkowski, M.N. (2000). Genocide and Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.