OLD PEOPLES’ WELL BEING IN A TOTAL INSTITUTION AND THE IMPERATIVE OF NEW POLICY DIRECTIVE
In contemporary times, African as well as Nigerian societies have experienced changes due to urbanization, globalization, and industrialization. This has resulted in a weakening of the hitherto existing bonds, norms, values and culture in the family structure with the attendant consequences of neglecting the elderly. While studies have focused on the factors militating against adequate care for the elderly, psychological well being of the elderly as well as their unmet needs, dearth of information exist on the social well-being of the elderly who are under care and support in the institution such as the Yaba old people’s home. This study was conducted against this background with the social exchange theory and Health Belief Model as its theoretical frameworks. The study was purely qualitative using in-depth interview with 44 resident aged people, 3 key informant interviews with staff of the institution and non-participant observation as the methods of data collection. Over half (59.0%) of the respondents are female while about a quarter of the respondents (23.0%) most of whom were females, had no education. Furthermore, while 91.0% were between the ages of 71-90years, 98.0% of the respondents were widowed prior to their admission into the homes. Findings revealed that the elderly experienced dissatisfaction with the food, access to medical attention and condition of living in the institution. This was revealed to be because they lacked choice as to what to eat, where to stay, who to stay with and when to receive medical attention. Lack of adequate funding from government, inconsistent payment from relations of the elderly, and limited supplies of resources were reported as the challenges faced by the institutions which affected the care of the elderly in the home. Adequate funding, consistent payment and increased support from government, clients relations and other necessary stakeholders respectively are recommended in order to ameliorate the conditions of the aged in Nigeria in particular and African in general.
Adamson J. and Schmade, A. 1956. Object Loss, Giving Up, and the Onset of Psychiatric Diseases. Psychosomatic Medicine, 27 557-576
Aina, O. 2012. “Two Halves make a Whole: Gender at the Cross-roads of the Nigerian Development Agenda” Inaugural lecture series 250 delivered at the Obafemi Awolowo University on 25th September, 2012.
Amanda H, and Mark G. 2002. Chronic Poverty and Older People in the Developing World. Helpage International. CPRC Working Paper No. 10. Pp 1 - 24
Anderson, K. A., and Dabelko-Schoeny, H. I. 2010. Civic Engagement for Nursing Home Residents: A call for Social
Work Action. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 53, 270-282.
Akinyemi, I..A and Akinlo, A. 2014. Unmet Needs for Care and Support for the Elderly in Nigeria: Gaps in Experiences and Expectations of the Aged in Ilesa, South-West Nigeria In The Nigeria Journal of Sociology Special Edition on Ageing in Nigeria, 12(1), 28-43
Barrientos, A. 2000. Work, Retirement and Vulnerability of Older Persons in Latin America: What Are the Lessons for Pension Design?, 1 - 24
Bernheim, B.D., A. Shleifer, and L.H. Summers. 1985. The Strategic Bequest Motive. Journal of Political Economy 93:1045-1076.
Blau, P.M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.
Bradburn, N. 1969.The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Chicago: Aldine.
Charles, S. and Carstensen, L . 2010 “Social and Emotional Aging” Annual Review of Psychology , 61, 383-409
Christopher, J. 1999. Situating Psychological Well-Being: Exploring the Cultural Roots of its Theory and Research. Journal of Counselling & Development, 77, 141–152
David Gordon. 2005. Indicators of Poverty and Hunger. Expert Group Meeting on Youth Development Indicators United Nations Headquarters, New York 12th – 14th December 2005
Dodge, R., Daly, A., Huyton, J., and Sanders, L. 2012. The Challenge of Defining Wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(3), 222-235. doi:10.5502/ijw.v2i3.4
Dowd, J.J. 1975. Aging as Exchange: A Preface to Theory. Journal of Gerontology 30:584-594.
Eboiyehi 2008. Care and Support for the Aged among the Esan of Edo State Nigeria, unpublished Ph.D thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan
Emerson, E. 1985.Evaluating the Impact of Deinstitutionalization on the Lives of Mentally Retarded People. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90(3), 277–288.
Ejikeme, T.U, Ejikeme G.G, Badru F.A, Akwash F.B 2014 “Social Support and the Welfare of the Older Adults in Conflict in Nigeria” The Nigeria Journal of Sociology Special Edition on Ageing in Nigeria 12(1), 243-256
Erving Goffman. 1957. On the Characteristics of Total Institutions. A Paper Presented at the Symposium on Preventive and Social Psychiatry of the Walter Reed Institute.
Felce, D. and Perry, J. 1995. Quality of Life: Its Definition and Measurement. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 16(1), 51–74
Friday A. Eboyehi 2009. Care and Support for the Aged among the Esan of South Nigeria
Grady, R. O. 1990. Older Women and Poverty. Graduate School of Social Works. Boston College
Gureje, O., Kola L., Ebenezer A., and Benjamin O. 2008 “Determinants of Quality of life of Elderly Nigerian: Results from Ibadan Study of Ageing.” Africa Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(3), 21-48
Harris C. and Cole J. 1980.Working with Older People.The Social Work Skills Series.
HelpAge International. 2008. Older People in Africa: A Forgotten Generation. www.helpage.org
Hendricks, J. 1995. "Exchange Theory in Aging. " In G. Maddox Ed.). The Encyclopedia of Aging (2nd ed.). New York: Springer
Hogan, D.P., D.J. Eggebeen, and C.C. Clogg. 1993. The Structure of Intergenerational Exchanges in American Families. American Journal of Sociology 98:1428-1458.
Homans, G.C. 1961. Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
House, J.S., Landis, K.R., and Umberson, D. 1988. Social Relationships and Health. Science, 241, 540-545.
Ibitoye O., Sanuade O., Adebowale A., Ayeni O., 2014. Psychological Wellbeing of the Elderly in Nigeria The Nigeria Journal of Sociology Special Edition on Ageing in Nigeria 12(1), 74-85
Isiugo-Abanihe U.C. 2014 .The Demography and Sociology of Ageing: Implications for Nigeria. In The Nigeria Journal of Sociology Special Edition on Ageing in Nigeria, 12(1), 1 - 8
Kasper, J. D. 1988. Aging Alone: Profiles and Projections. Baltimore, MD: The Common wealth Fund Commission on Elderly People Living Alone.
Kato E. 1998. The Situation of Older People in Cambodia. Help Age International Programme in Cambodia.
King, G. B. 1985. Social Security and the Changing Role of Women. In U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging, Fifty years of Social Security: Past achievements and Future Challenges (pp. 60-72). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Lefcourt H. (1973). The Function of the Illusion of Control and Freedom. American Psychologist, 28, 417-425
Levy, B. R., and Leifheit-Limson, E. 2009. The Stereotype-Matching Effect: Greater Influence on Functioning. Psychology and Aging, 24, 230-233.
Lloyd-Sherlock. 2000. Old Age and Poverty in Developing Countries: New Policy Challenges.
Minkler M., Stone R. 1985. Introduction: A Socialist-Feminist Perspective to Aging. Journal of Aging Studies,7, 59-73
Minkler, M., and Stone, R. 1985.The feminization of poverty and older women. The Gerontologist, 25, 351-357.
Ryff, C. D. 1989a. Happiness is Everything, Or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well- Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081
Sarah C. White. 2008. But what is Wellbeing: A Framework for Analysis in Social and Development Policies and Practice. Centre for Development Studies ESRC Research Group on Wellbeing in Developing Countries.
Shin, D., and Johnson, D. 1978.Avowed Happiness As An Overall Assessment of the Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 5(1), 475–492.
Smolensky, E., Danziger, S., and Gottschalk, P. 1988. The Declining Significance of Age in the United States: Trends in the Wellbeing of Children and the Elderly Since 1939. In J. L. Palmer Smeeding, and B. Torrey (Eds.), The Vulnerable (pp. 29-54). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute
Stanislav V. 1972. Physical and Mental Health Effects of involuntary Relocation and 1nstitutionalization on the Elderly. American Journal of Public Health.
Sussman, M. Cates,J. and. Smith, O. 1970. Inheritance and the Family. New York: Sage.
Ting C.A.0, 2012 The Impact of Modernity on family structure and function: A Study among Beijing, Hong Kong and Yunnan Families: A Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF Philosophy in Social Sciences (Sociology), Lingman University
World Bank, 1994. Averting the Old Age Crisis. (Washington D.C.,)
World Health Organization. 1997. WHOQOL Measuring Quality of Life. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
World Health Organization 2002. “Abuse of Elderly” in World Health Report on Violence and Health. A Report of World Health Organization
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.