Evaluating the effect of a psychosocial well-being programme for students at a Tanzanian university

JANVIER RUGIRA, A W NIENABER, M P WISSING

Abstract


This study investigated the efficacy of a new psychosocial well-being promoting programme for university students in Tanzania. Participants were adult university students (N = 82; 42 married and 40 single; 46 female and 36 male) of 19 to 40 years of age with a mean age of 29.5. Four standardised scales i.e., the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, the Trait Hope Scale, and The Patient Health Questionnaire: Depression Symptoms (PHQ-9), were administered before and after the programme to determine the effect thereof. Quantitative findings indicated that the programme had a significant positive effect on problem-focused coping, social well-being and hope. Married participants were more effective in suppression of unpleasant emotions in the experimental group than in the control group. Gender-based differences were noted on emotional well-being scores, where an increase in the experimental group is noted with females on areas such as problem-focused coping, suppression of unpleasant emotions, total self-efficacy, and social well-being. The programme was specifically effective on suppressing unpleasant emotions to married participants in the experimental group.

 


Keywords


Tanzania, well-being, university students, positive psychology, promotion, programme evaluation.

Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Adewuya, A. O., Ola, B. A., & Afolabi, O. O. (2006). Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96(1-2), 89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.05.021 .

Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1984). Measuring adjustment to college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(2), 179-189.

Belaise, C., Fava, G. A., & Marks, I. M. (2005). Alternatives to debriefing and modifications to cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 212-217.

Berkel, H. (2009). The relationship between personality, Coping styles and stress, anxiety and depression (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of

Canterbury, Christchurch: New Zealand.

Bouteyre, E., Maurel, M., & Bernaud, J. L. (2007). Daily hassles and depressive symptoms among first year psychology students in France: The role of coping and social support. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 23(2), 93-99.

Brandon, C. M., & Cunningham, E. G. (1999). Bright ideas manual. Melbourne, Australia: OZ Child.

Caffo, E., Belaise, C., & Foresi, B. (2008). Promoting resilience and psychological well-being in vulnerable life stages. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 331-336.

Chesney, M. A., Darbes, L. A., Hoerster, K., Taylor, J. M., Chambers, D. B., & Anderson, D. E. (2005). Positive emotions: Exploring the other hemisphere in behavioural medicine. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 12, 50-58.

Chesney, M. A., Neilands, T. B., Chambers, D. B., Taylor, J. M., & Folkmam, S. (2006). A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 421-437.

Cooke, R., Beewick, B. M., Barkham, M., Bradley, M., & Audin, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring and managing the psychological wellbeing of first year university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(4), 505-517.

Crockett, L. J., Iturbide, M. I., Torres, S. R. A., McGinley, M., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(4), 347-355.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Ellis, S. M., & Steyn, H. S. (2003). Practical significance (effect sizes) versus or in combination with statistical significance (p-values). Management Dynamics, 12, 51-53.

Fava, G. A., & Ruini, C. (2003). Development and characteristics of a well-being enhancing psychotherapy strategy: well-being therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 45-63.

Fava, G. A., Ruini, C., Rafanelli, C., Finos, L., Salmaso, L., Mangelli, L., & Sirigatti, S. (2005). Well-being therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 26-30.

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (1992). Research methods in the social sciences (4th ed.). New York, USA: St. Martin's Press.

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Jaycox, L., & Seligman, M. (1995). Preventing depressive symptoms in school-children: two year follow-up. Psychological Science, 6, 343-351.

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Chaplin, T. M., Shatte , A. J., Samuels, B., et al. (2007). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: a randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Programme. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 9-19.

Jaycox, L. H., Reivich., K. J., Gillham, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 534-541.

Kam, C. M., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Promoting alternative thinking skills curriculum. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 4, 55-63.

Kelley, T. M. (2003). Health realization: A principle-based psychology of positive youth development. Child and Youth Care Forum, 32(1), 47-72.

Kendal, P. C. (1994). Treatment of anxiety disorders in children: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 100-110.

Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Atlanta: Brief description of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF). Retrieved from: http://www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes/.

Keyes, C. L. M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing. American Psychologist, 62(2), 95-108.

Keyes, C. L. M. (2006). Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 395-402.

Keyes, C. L. M., Ryff, C. M., & Shmotkin, D., (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 82(6), 1007-1022.

Keyes, C. L. M., & Shapiro, A. (2008) Marital status and social well-being: Are the married always better off? Social Indicators, 88(2), 329-346.

Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M. P., Potgieter, J. P., Temane, Q. M., Kruger, A., & Van Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 15(3), 181-192. doi:10.1002/cpp.572.

Kim, H. W., Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., & Krauss, M. W. (2003). The role of coping in maintaining the psychological well-being of mothers of adults with intellectual disability and mental illness. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 47(4/5) 313-327.

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & William, J. B. W. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Medicine, 16, 606-613.

Kruger, A., Wissing, M. P., Towers, G. W., & Colleen, D. (2012). Sex differences independent of other psycho-socio-demographic factors as predictor of body mass index in black South African adults. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 30(1):56-65.

Lopez, S. J., Rose, S., Robinson, C., Marques, S. C., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2009). Measuring and promoting hope in school children. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (pp. 37-51). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lowe, H., & Cooke, A. (2003). Mind the gap: Are students prepared for higher education? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 27, 53-76.

McGrath, H., & Noble, T. (2003). Bounce back! A classroom resiliency programme for schools. Book 1: The Teacher’s Handbook. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.

Meichenbaum, D., & Deffenbacher, J. L. (1998). Stress inoculation training. The Counseling Psychologist, 1, 69-90.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. (2nd ed.). New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

Patton, G., Bond, L., Butler, H., & Glover, S. (2003). Changing schools, changing health? Design and implementation of the gatehouse project. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 231-239.

Penland, E., Masten, W., Zelhart, P., Fournet, G., & Callahan, T. (2000). Possible selves, depression, and coping skills in university students. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 963-969.

Roothman, B., Kirsten, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2003). Gender differences in aspects of psychological well-being. South African Journal of Psychology, 33(4), 212-218.

Ruini, C., Belaise, C., Brombin, C., Caffo, E., & Fava, G. A. (2006). Well-being therapy in school settings: a pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75, 331-336.

Rugira, J., Nienaber, A. W., & Wissing, M.P. (2013). Psychological Well-Being among Tanzanian University Students. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23 (3), 49-55

Rugira, J. (2013). Development and evaluation of a psychological well-being programme for university students in Tanzania (Unpublished doctoral Thesis). North-West University, Potchefstroom campus: South Africa.

Rumrill, P. D., & Dimitrov, D. M. (2003) Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20, 159-165.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potential: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Exploration on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1083.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 719-729.

Salami, S. O. (2008). Demographic and psychological factors predicting organizational commitment among industrial workers. Anthropologist, 10(1), 31-38

Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). The Optimistic Child. NSW, Australia: Random House

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55(1), 410-421.

Shapiro, A. D. (1996). Explaining psychological distress in a sample of remarried and divorced persons: The influence of economic distress. Journal of Family Issues, 17(2), 186-203.

Snowden, M., Dhingra, S. S., Keyes, C. L. M., & Anderson, L. A., (2010). Changes in mental well-being in the transition to late life: Findings from MIDUS I and II. American Journal of Public Health. 100(12), 2385-2388.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. New York, USA: Free Press.

Snyder, C. R., Fieldman, D. R., Shorey, H. S., & Rand, K. L. (2002). Hopeful choices: A school Counselor’s guide to Hope theory. Professional School Counseling, 5(5), 298-10.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.

Van Schalkwyk, I. (2009). Flourishing in a group of South African adolescents. (Unpublished doctoral Thesis). North-West University, Potchefstroom campus: South Africa.

Walker, C. J. (2009, August). A Longitudinal Study on the Psychological Well-Being of College Students. Research presented at the 117th convention of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Wissing, M. P., Khumalo, I. T., Oosthuizen, C. M., Nienaber, A. W., Kruger, A., Potgieter, J. C., & Temane Q. M. (2011). Coping self-efficacy as mediator in the dynamics of psychological well-being in various contexts. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21(2), 165-172.

Xu, J., & Roberts, E. R. (2010). The power of positive emotions: It’s a matter of life or death – Subjective well-being and longevity over 28 years in a general population. Health Psychology, 29(1), 9-19.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.