The Study examined influence of women employment, nursemaid and the pill on fertility of ever-married senior female employees at the University of PortHarcourt - Nigeria as a reference.  Primary information was obtained through questionnaire.  The women were mostly living with their spouse (86.3%) and had role conflict (77%).  Data showed that 48.7% of the women had a nursemaid, amongst who 63.4% experienced role conflict.  Average family size was low (3.1 children) with 27% having had a miscarriage (at an average of two times), 12.8% had still-birth and 18.8% exposed to abortion.  Abortion was unacceptable to the women, except when the pregnancy endangers the mother’s health (significant at z-statistics = 9.81; P < 0.0001).  Data revealed a significant relationship and degree of association between the possession of a nursemaid and contraceptive use by the women (P < 0.05 = 0.006; Coeff. = 0.2430).  Possession of a nursemaid and a possible ‘husband-nursemaid’ sexual affairs amidst fears about HIV/AIDS could increase contraceptive use among the women that has tendency to restrict their fertility. Self-discipline among husbands is recommended.





Female Employment, Role Conflict, Nursemaid, Contraceptives, Fertility, Port Harcourt-Nigeria.

Full Text:



Basow, S.A. (1992). Gender Stereotype and Roles, 3rd Edition. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Blake, J. (1965). ‘Demographic Science and Redirection of Population Policy, British Medical Journal. 325:857-863.

Farooq, G.M. and Simmons, G.B (eds) (1985). Fertility in Developing Countries, An Economic Perspective on Research and Policy Issues. London: The Macmillan Press Limited.

Hakim, C. (2003). ‘A New Approach to Explaining Fertility Patterns: Preference Theory’. Population and Development Review. 29(3): 349 – 374. September.

Hawthorne, G. (1970). The Sociology of Fertility, Themes and Issues in Modern Sociology. London: Collier – Macmillan Limited.

Gorgen, R, Yansane, M.L, Marx, M and Millimounou, D. (1998). Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes among Unmarried Urban Youths in Guinea. International Family Planning Perspectives. 24, 2:65-71.

Henslin, J.M. (2004). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Fifth Edition. USA: Allyn and Bacon Publishers.

Honig, E. and Hershatte, G. (1988). Personal Voices: Chinese Women in the 1980s. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Iyoha, M.A. (1982). The Determinants of Fertility in Less Developed Countries: A Simultaneous Equations Model. Research Bulletin, No. 82/02. Human Resources Unit, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Jacka, T. (1997). Women’s Work in Rural China: Change and Continuity in an Era of Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jaffe, A.J and Azumi, K (1960). ‘The Birth Rate and Cottage Industries in Underdeveloped Countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 9(1): 52 – 63.

Joshi, H. (2002). ‘Production, Reproduction and Education: Women, Children and Work in a British Perspective’. Population and Development Review. 28(3): 445-474.

Kaufman, C.E. and Stavron, E.S (2002). ‘Bus Fare Please’: The Economics of Sex and Gifts among Adolescents in Urban South Africa. Research Division, Working Paper No. 166 New York: The Population Council.

Kendalle, D. (2006). Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials. Fifth Edition. USA: Thomson Wadsworth Publishers.

Kruglanski, A.W. and Higgins, E.T. (eds) (2007). Social Psychology: A Handbook of Basic Principles (Second Edition). New York: Guilford Publishers.

Luke, N. (2002). ‘Confronting the Myth of ‘Sugar Daddies’: Recent Findings Linking Age Differences, economic transaction and risky behaviour in sexual relations in urban Kenya’ Paper Presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, Atlanta, 9 – 11 May.

Macionis, J.J. (2005). Sociology: Annotated Instructor’s Edition (Tenth Edition). India: Dorling Kindersley Publishers.

Merton, R.K (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure (Enlarged Edition). New York: Free Press.

Nesbitt – Ahmed, Z. (2012). ‘Domestic Workers in Nigeria’: Accessed online www.naturalnigeria.com/2012/06/domestic-workers-in-nigeria /on June 2, 2012.

Okediji, F.O. (1967). Some social psychological Aspects of Fertility among married women in an African city. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan. Vol IX, No.1.

Olusanya, P.O. (1967). The Educational Factor in Human Fertility: A Case Study of the Residents of a Suburban Area in Ibadan, Western Nigeria. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan. Vol IX, No.3.

Olusanya, P .O. (1989). “Human Reproduction in Africa: Fact, Myth and the Martyr Syndrome. “Research for Development. (The Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER)). Vol 6, No. 1.

Preston-Whyte, E.M. (1994). ‘Gender and the Lost Generation: The dynamics of HIV transmission among South African Teenagers in Kwazulu/Natal. Health Transition Review. 4 Suppl. 241 – 55.

Romaniuk, A. (2011). ‘Persistence of High Fertility in Tropical Africa; The Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo”. Population and Development Review. 37(1):1-28.

Rosen, E.I (1987). Bitter Choices: Blue Collar Women in and out of Work. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Stycos, J.M. and Weller, R.H. (1967). “Female Working Roles and Fertility”. Demography. 4(1): 210 – 217.

Wagstaff, D.A. (1995). Multiple Partners, risky partners and HIV risk among low income Urban Women. Family Planning Perspectives. 27(6):241-45


Centre for Population Options (1990). The Facts: Teenage Pregnancy in Africa. Washington DC. Centre for Population Options.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2012). ‘Global AIDS Response: Country Progress Report, Nigeria.

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate in Nigeria. CIA World Factbook (2009). Accessed online on May 31, 2013.

National Population Bureau (1984). The Nigerian Fertility Survey, 1981/82: Methodology, Findings and Statistics. Vols. I & II: National Population Bureau, Lagos – Nigeria.

National Population Commission (NPC) and ICF Macro (2009). Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey 2008: Key Findings. Calverton, Maryland USA; NPC and ICF Macro.

Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) (2003). National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria/ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland USA. April 2004.

New Encyclopaedia Britannica (1997). Ready Reference (15th Edition). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Vol. 10.

UNAIDS (2012). Global Report. Annexes.

National HIV/AIDs and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS – Plus). Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja – Nigeria, 2013.







  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.