This study investigated effectiveness of cognitive restructuring and social decision-making techniques on truancy reduction among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was adopted for the study. A total of 180 Senior Secondary School adolescents was randomly selected from three purposively selected secondary schools, from 11 local government areas in Ibadan, using the multistage sampling procedure. They were stratified proportionately into two experimental conditions - Cognitive Restructuring Technique (CRT) and Social Decision-Making Technique (SDMT) – and the control group. Two instruments, Truancy Behaviour Rating Scale (α = 0.78) and Student Motivation Scale (α = 0.77) were employed in the study. Three hypotheses were tested for significance at 0.05 alpha level. The data were subjected to Analysis of Covariance and Scheffe for post hoc analysis. There was a significant difference in the truancy reduction of the experimental participants and control group (F(2,174) = 51.40; P<0.05). The experimental participants (x=109.6, x = 103.5) performed better than the control (x = 126.134) on truancy behaviour reduction. Similarly, truancy declined among the participants treated with SDMT (x = 103.49) more than among those treated with CRT (x = 109.57). There was reduction in the truancy behaviour of high- and low- motivated participants (F(2,174) = 59.33; P< 20.05). Cognitive Restructuring and Social Decision-Making techniques were effective in the reduction of truancy among secondary school adolescents. Counselling and educational psychologists could make use of the two approaches to reduce the incidence of truancy in school.





Truancy, Adolescents, Cognitive Restructuring, Social Decision-Making

Full Text:



Al-Hassan, A.B. 1990. The management of disaffection in school educational management and administration, 18.3:46-52.

Ames, C. A. 1990. Motivation: what teachers need to know. Teacher's College Record. 91. 3.

Beck, A. T. 1999. Prisoners of hate: the cognitive basic of anger, hostility and violence. New York: Harper Collins.

Bell, A. J., Rosen, L. A. and Dynlacht, D. 1994. Truancy intervention. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27.3: 203- 211.

Bolarin, T.A. 1996. Truancy among students causes and remedies. In E.O. Obe Ed School indiscipline and remedies. Lagos: Premier publishers

Coleman, C. 1995. Truancy and the curriculum. In O’Keefe, D. & Stoll, P. Eds Issues in school attendance and truancy. London: Pitman Publishing.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., Thwaites, G. A., Lynch, R.S., Baker, D. A., and Stark, R. 1996. State-trait anger theory and the utility of the Trait Anger Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 131-148.

Elias, M. J., Butler, L. B., Bruno, E. M., Papke, M.R., and Shapiro, T. F. 2007. Social decision making/social problem solving, HRD Focus Online. Spring 2007 Volume V. Edition 7. HRD Focus on line.

Elias, M.J., Gara, M.A., Schuyler, T.F., Branden–Muller, and Sayette, M.A. 1991. “The promotion of social competence: longitudinal study of a preventative school-based programme.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 61:409–17.

Falaye, A.O. and Gesinde, A.M. 2003. Chronic school absentees’ opinion about child centered factors responsible for their non-school attendance behaviour. Ibadan Journal of Educational Studies.

Fogelman, K. Tibbenham, A. and Lambert, L. 1980. Absence from school. In L. Hersor and I. Berg Eds. Out of school Cluchester, John Wiley and Sons.

Folgeman, K. and Hibbert, L. 1990. Future live of truants: Family formation and health related behaviours. British Journal of Educational Psychology 60:107-114.

Gabb, S. 1997. Truancy: its measurement and causation: a brief review of the literature. Adapted from chapter 3 of the report of the North London Truancy Unit, Her Majesty’s Stationer Officer London.

Garry, E. M. 2001. Truancy: first step to a lifetime of problems. Official Bulletin of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). US Department of Justice.

Gesinde, A.M. 2004. Multi-aetiological predictions of non-school attendance behaviour among secondary school students in Oyo State. Unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to the Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan.

Gray, J. & Jesson, M. 1990. Truancy in secondary schools amongst fifth-year pupils. Links 15.3: 25-33.

Hallam, S. & Roaf, C. 1995. Here today, here tomorrow: helping schools to promote attendance. London: Calouste Gilbenkian Foundation.

Hallfors, D.; Vevea, J.L.; Iritani, B.; Cho, H.; Khatapoush, S. and Saxe, L. 2002. Truancy, grade point average, and sexual activity: a meta-analysis of risk indicators for substance use. Journal of School Health, Vol. 72 5: 205-211.

Herbert, L. F. 2005. Applications of research in music education.

Hersov, L.A. and Berg, I. 1990. Introduction. S. 1–6 in: Lionel A. Hersov und Ian Berg Hg., Out of school. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Idowu, S. 1990 . Basics of Guidance and Counselling. Ibadan: Signal Educational Services Ltd.

Igborgbor, G.C. 1984. Comparison of values clarification and contingency management techniques in the treatment of truancy. An unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted to Faculty of Education, Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan.

Jonassen, D.H., Beissner, K. and Yacci, M. 1993. Structural knowledge: techniques for representing, conveying, and acquiring structural knowledge, 1st edition. New Jersey: L. Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Kilpatrick, P. 1998. Post-registration truancy. Youth Studies Australia, 17.i: 28 – 33.

Larson, J.R and Christensen, C, 1993. Group as problem solving units - towards a new meaning of social cognition. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32: 5-30.

Laughlin, P.R, Zander, M.L, Knievel, E.M and Tan, T.K, 2003. Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems: informative equations and effective strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85.4:684694.

Le Riche, E. 1998. Why do teenage girls truant? A study of school absenteeism in two schools in Merseyside. Occasionally Papers in Sociology and School Administration, No. 8. London: Roehampton Institute.

Loeber, R and Farrington, D. 2001. Child delinquents. London: Thousand Oaks.

Masithela, N.J. 1992. An investigation of the role that high-school teachers can play in reducing truancy in the Galeshewe area, with specific reference to Thomelang High School. Unpublished M.Ed dissertation, University of Natal Durban, South Africa.

Miller, P. and Plant, M. 1999. Truancy and perceived school performance: an alcohol and drug study of U.K. teenagers. Alcohol and Health Research Centre, Uk. Alcalc .Oxford journals.Org/Cgi/Content/Abstract/34/6/886

Norman, J. 2001. Tracking the truant. Managing Schools Today. 15.1- 7.

Nwagu, H.O. 1997. Family life and relationships in families of children with behaviour problems: a child guidance case notes. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology vol. 3, issue1.

Nwana, O. C. 1971. Major school offences in Nigeria: a preliminary study. West African Journal of Education, XV,2.

Pintrich, P.R., Ryan, A.M., and Patrick, H. 1998. The differential impact of task value and mastery orientation on males’ and females self-regulated learning. In L. Hoffmann, A. Krapp, K.A. Renninger, & J.Baumert Eds., Interest and learning Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education. pp.337-354.

Rumberger, R. W. 2001. Why students drop out of school and what can be done Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 2002 from http:www.civilrihtsproject. hanard.edu/research/dropouts runlberger pdf.

Samtrock, J.N. 2001. Children 4th ed. Dubugue 1A; Brown & Benchmark.

Shaffer, D.R. 1993 Developmental psychology: childhood and adolescence. 3rd edition. California: Brooks/Cole.

Ugbede, E.O. 1999. The issue of indiscipline in schools in Nigeria. Kontagora Journal of Education 4.192: 49-54.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.