A O Busari







This study was carried  out  to establish  the scientific processes for the development and validation of Multi- dimensional Personality Inventory (MPI). The process of development and validation occurred in three phases with five components of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional stability, Extroversion, and intelligence. The overall norm group in the first phase of the research contained 7,560 Participants ,while the second and the third phases had ,2820and 1000 norm samples respectively. Anaylses indicates strong reliability for the items in the five components of MPI. The significant inter- factor correlation coefficients obtained attested to the construct validity of the Inventory. Its usefulness to counsellors, psychologists, researchers and other stakeholders were discussed.




Development , Validation, Personality inventory

Full Text:



Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187– 215.

Block, J. (2010). "The five-factor framing of personality and beyond: Some ruminations". Psychological Inquiry, 21 (1): 2–25.

Bagby, R. M.; Marshall, M. B.; Georgiades, S. (2005). "Dimensional personality traits and the prediction of DSM-IV personality disorder symptom counts in a nonclinical sample". Journal of Personal Disorders19 (1): 53–67. doi:10.1521/pedi. PMID 15899720.

Carlson, Neil, (2010). Psychology the Science of Behaviour, p.438. Pearson Canada, United States of America. ISBN 978-0- 205-64524-4

Cattell, H.E.P, and Mead, A.D. (2007). The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, and D.H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing: Vol. 2: Personality measurement and assessment.

Costa, P.T.,Jr. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653–665.

Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. Wegner.(2011).Psychology second edition. New York: Worth Publishers

De Feyter, Tim; Ralf Caers, Claudia Vigna, Dries Berings (2012).

Unraveling the impact of the Big Five personality traits on academic performance: The moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy and academic motivation Learning and Individual Differences,22: 439–448.

De Fruyt, F.; De Clercq, B. J.; de Wiele, L.; Van Heeringen, K. (2006). The validity of Cloninger's psychobiological model versus the five-factor model to predict DSM-IV personality disorders in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample: domain facet and residualized facet descriptions". Journal of Personality,74

(2): 479–510. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00382.x.PMID 16529584.

Engler, B. (2009). Personality Theories: Eighth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cenage Learning.

Fairweather, J. (2012). Personality, nations, and innovation: Relationships between personality traits and national innovation scores. Cross-Cultural Research. The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 46, 3–30.

Grucza, R.A.; Goldberg, L.R. (2007). "The comparative validity of 11 modern personality inventories: Predictions of behavioral acts, informant reports, and clinical indicators". Journal of Personality Assessment, 89 (2): 167–187.


PMID 17764394 Hans Eysenck, (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

Hans Eysenck, (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16: 5 or 3? Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773–790.

Harms, P. (2012)."An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,102,: 874–888.

Harris, J. R. (2006). No two alike: Human nature and human individuality. WW Norton & Company.

Holder, M. D., & Klassen, A. (2010).Temperament and happiness in children. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 419-439. DOI 10.1007/s10902-009-9149-2

Joshanloo, M., & Afshari, S. (2009). Big five personality traits and self-esteem as

predictors of life satisfaction in Iranian muslim university students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 105-113. DOI 10.1007/s10902-009-9177-y

Judge, T.; Livingston, BA; Hurst, C (2012). "Do nice guys—and gals—really finish last? The joint effects of sex and agreeableness on income". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102 (2): 90–407. doi:10.1037/a0026021.

PMID 22121889.

Klimstra, T. (2012). "Personality traits and educational identity formation in late adolescents: Longitudinal associations and academic progress". Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41: 341– 356.

Klimstra, Theo; KoenLuyckx, VeerleGermeijs, WimMeeus, Luc Goossens (2007).School of Psychology and Child and Adolescent Development.

Komarraju, Meera (2011). The Big Five personality traits, Learning styles, and Academic Achievement.51. 472–477.

Komarraju, M.; Karau, S. J.; Schmeck, R. R.; Avdic, A.

(2011).The big five personality traits, learning styles, and academic achievement. Personality and Individual Differences,51 (4): 472–477. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.019.

Lischetzke, T., & Eid, M. (2006). Why extraverts are happier than introverts: The role of mood regulation. Journal of Personality, 74, 1127-1162. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00405.x

Lucas, Richard E. & Donnellan, M. Brent (2009). If the person-situation debate is really over, why does it still generate so much negative affect?". Journal of Research in Personality, 43 (3): 146–149.

McGhee, R.M., Ehrler, D.J., &Buckhalt, J. (2007).Five Factor Personality Inventory – Children (FFPI-C). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Mehta, Penkak (2012). "Personality as a predictor of burnout among managers of manufacturing industries..". Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology32: 321–328.

Mottus, R. (2012). Correlates of personality trait levels and their changes in very old age: The lothian birth cohort 1921. Journal of Research in Personality

Musek, Janet (2007). "A general factor of personality: Evidence for the Big One in the five-factor model". Journal of Research in Personality, 41: 1213–1233. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2007.02.003.

Norris, CJ; Larsen, JT; Cacioppo, JT (2007). "Neuroticism is associated with larger and more prolonged electrodermal responses to emotionally evocative pictures". Psychophysiology, 4 (5): 823–826.

doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00551.x.PMID 17596178

Poropat, A. E. (2009). "A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance". Psychological Bulletin, 135(2): 322–338.


Quercia, D. (2012). The personality of popular facebook users. ACM CSCW


Quercia, D. (2012). Our Twitter Profiles, Our Selves: Predicting Personality with Twitter. IEEE SocialCom2011


Roberts, B. W.; Mroczek, D. (2008)."Personality Trait Change in Adulthood". Current Directions in Psychological Science 17 (1): 1–35. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00543.x.PMC 2743415.PMID 19756219.

Schmitt, D. P.; Realo, A.; Voracek, M.; Allik, J. (2008). "Why can't a man be more ike a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 (1): 168–182.

doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168. PMID 18179326.

Singh, A. K. (2012). "Does trait predict psychological well-being among students of professional courses?.". Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 38 (2), 234–241.

Soto, C. J.; Gosling, Potter (Feb 2011). "Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: Big Five domains and facets in a large cross-sectional sample".

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100 (2): 300–348. doi:10.1037/a0021717. PMID 21171787.Retrieved 23 February 2012.

Strobel, M., Tumasjan, A., & Sporrle, M. (2011). Be yourself, believe in yourself, and be happy: Self-efficacy as a mediator between personality factors and subjective well-being. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 43-48.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467- 9450.2010.00826.x

Thompson, E.R. (2008). "Development and validation of an international English big-five mini-markers". Personality and Individual Differences45 (6): 542–548. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.06.013.

Weiss, A; King, JE; Hopkins, WD (2007)."A Cross-Setting Study of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Personality Structure and Development: Zoological Parks and Yerkes National Primate Research Center". American journal of primatology 69 (11): 1264–77. doi:10.1002/ajp.20428.PMC 2654334.PMID 17397036.

Widiger, T.A. &Trull, T.J. (2007). "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model". American Psychologist, 62 (2): 71 – 83. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.71. PMID 17324033.

Zelenski, J.M., Santoro, M.S., & Whelan, D.C. (2012). Would introverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts: Exploring the emotional and cognitive consequences of counter-dispositional behavior. Emotion, 12, 290-303.

DOI: 10.1037/a0025169

Zhang, Li-fang (2006). "Measuring thinking styles in addition to measuring personality traits?". Personality and Individual Differences, 33: 445–458.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.