• Cyril AKINYELE


household, environmental sanitation, Ketu


 This study investigated environmental sanitation practices amongst residents of Ketu in Lagos Nigeria. Cross sectional research design was adopted, while multistage sampling was used to select 380 out of 21,569 respondents. Systematic sampling was adopted to administer the questionnaire. The study revealed that majority 52.4% of the households across the zones have lavatories located outside their houses, 87.4% and 90.8% sourced drinking and water for sanitation purposes from hand-dug wells respectively, while only 30.3% had ventilated improved pit latrine, majority 72.4% had open drainage systems around their houses. For sanitation practices, more than half 50.5% of the respondents across the zones do not wash their hands after visiting the toilets, and that open defecation was rife around 76.3% of the respondents’ houses. Majority 81.1% dump refuse indiscriminately on communal dump-ground, while 73.5% engaged in monthly indoor general cleaning. It was suggested that the local government through community development associations should not only pursue environmental sanitation reorientation until it becomes a way of life among the residents, but also, embark on environmental sanitation assessment, and subsequently, reward the cleanest street, district, residential premises within the local government. 


Amakom, U. 2009. Sanitation sector status and gap analysis: Nigeria, Global Sanitation Fund, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. Retrieved from

African Development Bank. 2006. African Development Report 2006: Aid, Debt Relief and Development in Africa. Oxford University Press.

Arcury, T. 1990. Environmental attitude and environmental knowledge. Human organization, 49(4), 300-304.

Ayadi, P. A. and Rotowa, O. O. 2020. Spatial Heterogeneity in Open Defecation Practice in Residential Zones of Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 6(3), 81-93.

Babalobi, B. 2013. Water, sanitation and hygiene practices among primary-school children in Lagos: a case study of the Makoko slum community. Water International, 38(7), 921-929. doi:10.1080/02508060.2013.851368

Berkman, D. S., Lescano, A. G., Gilman, R. H., Lopez, S. L., and Black, M. M. 2002. Effects of stunting, diarrhoeal disease, and parasitic infection during infancy on cognition in late childhood: a follow-up study. Lancet, 359, 564–71.

Bindra, D., Ravindra, K., Chanana, N. and Mor, S. 2020. Assessment of on-site sanitation practices and contamination of groundwater in rural areas of Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. Environment, Development and Sustainability. doi:10.1007/s10668-020-00789-9

Black, R. E., and Morris, S. S., and Bryce, J. 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet, 361, 2226–34.

Bora, J. P., Das, B. R., and Das, N. 2018. Availability and utilization of sanitation facilities among the tea garden population of Jorhat district, Assam. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 5(6), 2506–2511.

Briceño, B., Coville, A. and Martinez, S. 2015. Promoting handwashing and sanitation: evidence from a large-scale randomized trial in rural Tanzania. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

Buttel, F. H., and Taylor, P. J. 1992. Environmental sociology and global environmental change: a critical assessment. Society & Natural Resources, 5(3), 211-230.

Caiazza, A., and Barrett, A. 2003. Engaging women in environmental activism: recommendations for Rachel’s Network. Institute for Women’s Policy Research.

Cairncross, S. and Kolsky, P. 2003. Environmental Health and the Poor: Our shared responsibility,WELL Study for DFID,WELL. Loughborough University.

Checkley, W., Buckley, G., Gilman, R. H., Assis, A. M., Guerrant, R. L., Morris, S. S., Mølbak, K., Valentiner-Branth, P., Lanata, C. F., Black, R. E., & Childhood Malnutrition and Infection Network. 2008. Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37(4), 816–830. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn099

Curtis, V., and Cairncross, S. 2003. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis., 3, 275–81.

Daramola, O. 2012. Clapping with One Hand: The Case of Urban Environmental Sanitation Practices In Nigeria. Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 2(4).

Daramola, O. P. 2015. Environmental sanitation practices in residential areas of Ibadan Metropolis. A PhD thesis Submitted to Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.[Google Scholar].

Daramola, O. 2016. Conceptual Modelling of Residents’ Environmental Sanitation Behaviour in a Nigerian Metropolis. Economic and Environmental Studies, 16(2), 207–227.

Dietz, T., Kalof, L., and Stern, P. C. 2002. Gender, values, and environmentalism. Social science quarterly, 83(1), 353-364.

Dube, B. 2006. A Study to determine factors leading to poor hygiene with regards to water and sanitation promotion among primary school going children in Chitungwiza Schools. BSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

Dunlap, R. E. 2008. The new environmental paradigm scale: From marginality to worldwide use. The Journal of environmental education, 40(1), 3-18.

Dzwairo, B., Hoko, Z., Love, D., and Guzha, E. 2006. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31(15), 779–788.

Eagles, P.F. and Demare, R. . 1999. Factors Influencing Children’s Environmental Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Education, 30(4), 33–37.

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. 2005. Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation: Implementing the Bellagio Principles in Urban Environmental Sanitation. EAWAG Aquatic Research.

Eurobarometer, E. O. R. G. 2002. the attitudes of Europeans towards the environment. Brussels: Directorate-General Press and Communication.

Ercumen, A., Arnold, B. F., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K., & Colford, J. M. 2015. Upgrading a piped water supply from intermittent to continuous delivery and association with waterborne illness: A matched cohort study in urban India. PLoS Medicine, 12(10, e1001892).

Freeman, M.C., Chard, A.N., Nikolay, B., Garn, J.V., Okoyo,, C., Kihara, J., et al. 2015. Associations between school- and household-level water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and soil-transmitted helminth infection among Kenyan school children. Parasit Vectors, 8, 412.

Gelaw, A., Anagaw, B., Nigussie, B., Silesh, B., Yirga, A., and Alem, M., et al. 2013. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a crosssectional study. BMC Public Health, 13, 304.

Guerrant, R. L., Kosek, M., Moore, S., Lorntz, B., Brantley, R., & Lima, A. A. 2002. Magnitude and impact of diarrheal diseases. Archives of Medical Research, 33(4), 351–355. doi:10.1016/S0188-4409(02)00379-X

Haque, S. S., Yanez-Pagans, M., Arias-Granada, Y. and Joseph, G. 2020. Water and sanitation in Dhaka slums: access, quality, and informality in service provision. Water International, 1-21. doi:10.1080/02508060.2020.1786878

Harter, M., Mosch, S. and Mosler, H. 2018. How does Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) affect latrine ownership? A quantitative case study from Mozambique. BMC Public Health, 18. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5287-y

Howell, S. E., and Laska, S. B. 1992. The changing face of the environmental coalition: A research note. Environment and behavior, 24(1), 134-144.

Humphrey, J. H. 2009. Child undernutrition, tropical enteropathy, toilets, and handwashing. The Lancet, 374(9694), 1032–1035. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60950-8

Hunter, L. M., Hatch, A., and Johnson, A. (2004). Cross‐national gender variation in environmental behaviors. Social science quarterly, 85(3), 677-694.

IDS. 2011. Community-Led Total Sanitation.

Kalantari, K., Fami, H. S., Asadi, A., and Mohammadi, H. M. 2007. Investigating factors affecting environmental behavior of urban residents: A case study in Tehran City-Iran. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(2), 67-74.

Mshida, H. A., Kassim, N., Mpolya, E., and Kimanya, M. 2018. Water, sanitation, and hygiene practices associated with nutritional status of under-five children in semipastoral communities Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 9, 98:1242.

Ngure, F. M., Reid, B. M., Humphrey, J. H., Mbuya, M. N., Pelto, G., & Stoltzfus, R. J. 2014. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: Making the links. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1308(1), 118–128. doi:10.1111/nyas.12330

Nord, M., Luloff, A. E., and Bridger, J. C. 1998. The association of forest recreation with environmentalism. Environment and behavior, 30(2), 235-246.

Ojewale, O. 2014. Effects of Residential Characteristics on Household Solid Waste and Street Litter Management in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. MSc thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ile-Ife.

Olawuni, P. and Daramola, O. 2017. Exploring residential characteristics as determinants of environmental sanitation behavior in Ibadan, Nigeria. Environmental Practice, 19(1), 16-25. doi:10.1080/14660466.2017.1275680

Paterson, C., Mara, D., and Curtis, T. 2007. Pro-poor sanitation technologies. Geoforum, 38, 901–907.

Pickering, A. J., Crider, Y., Amin, N., Bauza, V., Unicomb, L., Davis, J., Luby, S. P., & Carpenter, D. O. 2015. Differences in field effectiveness and adoption between a novel automated chlorination system and household manual chlorination of drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A randomized controlled trial. PloS One, 10(3), e0118397. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118397

Poortinga, W., Steg, L., and Vlek, C. 2004. Values, environmental concern, and environmental behavior: A study into household energy use. Environment and behavior, 36(1), 70-93.

Rajgire, A. V. 2013. Open defecation: A prominent source of pollution in drinking water in villages. International Journal of Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(1), 238–246.

Shams, S., Ahsan, A., Al-Mamun, A., & Arunkumar, T. 2016. Physical risk assessment for urban water supply in a developing country: A case of Mega City Dhaka. Engineering Journal, 20(3), 3. doi:10.4186/ej.2016.20.3.23

Srinivasan, S. K. 2014. Open defecation: Awareness and practices of rural districts of Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Scientifc Research, 3(5), 537–539.

Stanaway, J. D., Afshin, A., Gakidou, E., Lim, S. S., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., . . . Abdela, J. 2018. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), 1923–1994. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6

Steg, L., and Vlek, G. 2009. Encouraging Pro-environmental Behaviour: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309–317.

Tarrant, M. A., and Cordell, H. K. 1997. The effect of respondent characteristics on general environmental attitude-behavior correspondence. Environment and behavior, 29(5), 618-637.

UNDP. 2006. Human development report 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2009. Community Approaches to Total Sanitation: Based on case studies from India, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Zambia. UNICEF’s division of Policy and Practice.

Waage, J., Banerji, R., Campbell, O., Chirwa, E., Collender, G., Dieltiens, V., et al. 2010. The millennium development goals: a cross-sectoral analysis and principles for goal setting after 2015. Lancet, 376, 991–1023.

WHO. 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasi. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO. 2017. World Health Organization & UNICEF. Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2017 update and MDG assessment.

WHO/UNICEF. 2012. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water-2012 update - report of the joint monitoring

World Bank. 2018. Precarious progress: A diagnostic of water supply, sanitation, hygiene, and poverty in Bangladesh. WASH poverty diagnostic.