PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INDICATORS FOR THE RENOVATION OF BOWER’S TOWER
Sustainable development takes its root from sustainability. There are three pillars upon which sustainable development generally rests, and they are economic, social and environmental. These three pillars can generally be attributable to all tourism destinations. Hence, the term sustainable tourism, largely connects to tourism destinations to the three pillars of sustainable development. Bower’s tower is a moribund monumental structure that sits upon a hill in the heart of Ibadan. The study thus examines the three pillars of sustainable development and indicators for the renovation of Bower’s Tower, in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data for this study were retrieved with the aid of well-structured questionnaires. The retrieved data were descriptively and inferentially analyzed. The result of the study reveals that the three pillars of sustainable development (environmental, social and economic) are significantly joint predictors of the renovation of Bower’s tower. Furthermore, economic domain of sustainable development is the most significant predictor of the reconstruction of Bower’s tower, followed by environmental domain of sustainable development and lastly, social domain of sustainable development. Thus, the finding shows that it is more economically viable to renovate Bower’s tower, then secondly, it is environmentally viable and finally socially viable to renovate the tower for tourism.
Ajayi S. (2008) Bower’s Tower: A Historical Monument in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The Social Sciences, 3(1), 45-50.
Bamgboye E. and Okoruwa V. (2014) Chapter two: Designs of Experiments and Surveys. Data Collection, Management and
Analysis in Academic Research. Published by the Postgraduate School, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. ISBN 978-978-
-0-8. Pp 52.
Bhuiyan H., Siwar C., Ismail M., Islam R., (2012) The Role of Ecotourism for Sustainable Development in East Coast
Economic Region (Ecer), Malaysıa. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(9), 53-60.
Conaghan A., Hanrahan J. and McLoughlin E. (2015) The sustainable management of a Tourism Destination in Ireland: A
Focus on County Clare. An International Journal of Akdeniz University Tourism Faculty, 3(1), 62-87.
Daniela and Dragana (2020) What do we mean by cultural heritage sustainability? Cultural Heritage and Sustainability:
Practical Guide, Pp 1-104.
Farahani A., Wallbaum H. and Dalenbäck J. (2019) Optimized maintenance and renovation scheduling in multifamily
buildings—A systematic approach based on condition state and life cycle cost of building components. Constr. Manag.
Econ, 37, 139–155.
Federica A. (2017) Balancing Heritage Conservation and Sustainable Development – The Case of Bordeaux. IOP Conference
Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 245,1-10.
Ferreira M. and Almeida M. (2015) Benefits from energy related building renovation beyond costs, energy and emissions: 6th
International Building Physics Conference, IBPC. Energy Procedia. 00 000-000 pp 1-16.
Font, X. and Mccabe S. (2017) Sustainability and Marketing in Tourism: Its Contexts, Paradoxes, Approaches, Challenges
and Potential. J. Sustain. Tour. 25, 869–883.
Hunter C. (1997) Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Ann. Tour. Res. 24, 850–867.
International Energy Agency (2011) Renovation Concept. Building Renovation Case studies. Published by: Empa, Building
Science and Technology Lab CH-8600 Duebendorf. ISBN 978-3-905594-61-4, 1-60.
Isiaka M. and Isiaka R. (2019) Socio-Economic Characteristics of Domestic Tourism Consumers in Ibadan, Nigeria.
International Journal for Social Studies. 5(2), 52-68.
Grabara J. and Bajdor P. (2013) Towards to Sustainable Tourism Framework, Activities and Dimensions. Procedia
Economics and Finance Published by Elsevier B.V, 6, 523 – 529.
Jensen, Maslesa and Berg (2018) Sustainable Building Renovation: Proposals for a Research Agenda. Sustainability.
Karas L. and Ferencova M. (2010) The Survey of Attitudes of Students of Management Toward Travel Tour Prices. Polish
Journal Of Management Studies, 2, 1-7.
Kisi N. (2019) A Strategic Approach to Sustainable Tourism Development Using the A’WOT Hybrid Method: A Case Study of
Zonguldak, Turkey. Sustainability, 11 (964) 1-19.
Kiper (2013) Role of Ecotourism in Sustainable Development: Chapter 31. Advances in Landscape Architecture. 773-802
Klarin T. (2018) The Concept of Sustainable Development: From its Beginning to the Contemporary Issues. Zagreb
International Review of Economics and Business 21 (1), 67-94.
Kuhlman and Farrington (2010) What is Sustainability? Sustainability, 2, 3436-3448. doi:10.3390/su2113436
Medina L. (2005) Ecotourism and Certification: Confronting the Principles and Pragmatics of Socially Responsible Tourism.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13:3. Pp 281-295.
Mensah J. (2019) Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature
review. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1) 1-21, DOI: 10.1080/23311886.2019.1653531.
Morandotti M., Besana D. and Cinieri V. (2013) The sustainable management of the historical buildings. Central Europe
towards sustainable building: Sustainable Refurbishment of existing building stock, 1-10.
Muhanna E. (2006) Sustainable Tourism Development and Environmental Management for Developing Countries. Problems
and Perspectives in Management, 4(2), 14-30.
Niedziolka I. (2012) Sustainable Tourism Development. Reg. Form. Dev. Stud. 8, 157–166.
Neto F. (2003) A New Approach to Sustainable Tourism Development: Moving Beyond Environmental Protection. United
Nations DESA Discussion Paper Series 29, 1-10.
Olawuyi O., Jimoh S. and Olorunniyi B. (2017) sustainable tourism development through modern information systems (case
study: trans amusement park). Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1514, 1-17. Retrieved from
Selmanaj M., Gorica K. and Murati M. (2018) Challenges Faced by Tourism Actors for a more Sustainable Tourism in Albania.
International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 6(2), 197-211.
UNWTO (2013) Guidance note. Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook: Enhancing capacities for Sustainable
Tourism for development in developing countries.
Wall G. (1997) Is Ecotourism Sustainable? Environmental Management, 21(4), 483-491.
White V., McCrum G., Blackstock L. and Scott A. (2006) Sustainable Tourism. Indicators and Sustainable Tourism: Literature
Review. The Macaulay Institute Craigiebuckler AberdeenAB158QH,1-25.
Wiersum, K.F. (1995) Years of Sustainability in Forestry: Lessons from History. Environmental Management 19, 321-329.
World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), World Tourism Organisation (WTO), Earth Council (1995) Agenda 21 for the
Travel and Tourism Industry: Towards Environmentally Sustainable Development. WTTC–WTO–Earth Council: London.
Yang L. (2019) From General Principles of Civil Law to General Provisions of Civil Law: A Historical Leap in Contemporary
Chinese Civil Law. Social Sciences in China 2, 85–91.
Yazdi S. (2012) Sustainable Tourism. American International Journal of Social Science, 1(1),50-56.
Zamfir A. and Corbos R. (2015) Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Urban Areas: Case Study on Bucharest as
Tourist Destination. Sustainability 7, 12709-12722. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/sustainability-07-
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.