COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL INTERVENTIONS FOR PERSONS LIVING WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Anthony K. NKYI

Abstract


 

The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of specific clinical interventions that can be used by cognitive behavioral therapists working with clients who are experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related disorder that may occur following exposure to a traumatic event.  Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a structured psychotherapeutic approach built on a collaborative relationship between the client and the psychotherapist. One of the most effective PTSD management involves the use CBT techniques aimed at correcting the victims’ erroneous cognitions and to engender emotional processing of the trauma.  The paper reviews the literature on psychotherapy in PTSD and provides some practical ways for therapists to use when they are faced with patients having past-traumatic disorders.

 


Keywords


psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Psychiatric association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision, (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Atwoli, L., Stein D. J., Koenen, K. C., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2015). Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: Prevalence, correlates and consequences. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28(4), 307–311. doi:10.1097/yco.000000000000016

Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y: The Guilford Press

Benjet, C., Bromet, E., Karam, E. G., Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Ruscio, A. M., & Koenen, K. C. (2016). The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychological Medicine, 46(2), 327–343

Breslau. N., Davis, G. C., Andreski, P., & Peterson. (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 216-212.

Burns, D. D. (1990). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume Ltd.

Caramanica, K., Brackbill, R. M., Stellman, S. D., & Farfel, M. R. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among persons exposed to the 9/11 disaster. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 17(1), 356–362. Retrieved from https://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/ posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-hurricane-sandy-among-persons-exposed-to-the-disaster-1522-4821-17-173.pdf

Comstock. D. (ED). (2005). Diversity and development: Critical contexts that shape our lives and relationships. Belmont, A: Thompson Brooks/Cole.

Cooper, N. A., & Clum, G. A. (1989). Imaginal flooding as a supplementary treatment for PTSD in combat veterans: a controlled study. Behavior therapy, 20, 381-391.

Deblinger, E., Mcleer, S.V., & Henry. (1990). Cognitive behavioral treatment for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress: Preliminary findings. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 29, 747-752

Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1991). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in Rape victims: A comparison between cognitive behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715-723.

Fossion, P., Leys, C., Kempenaers, C., Braun, S., Verbanck, P., & Linkowski, P. (2015). Beware of multiple traumas in PTSD assessment: The role of reactivation mechanism in intrusive and hyper-arousal symptoms. Aging & Mental Health, 19(3), 258–263. doi:10.1080/13607863.2014.924901.

Grinage, B.D. (2003). Diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder. American Family Physician, 68(12), 2401-2408.

Jaycox, L. H., & Foa, E. B. (1996). Obstacles in implementing exposure therapy for PTSD: Case discussions and practical solutions. Clinical Psychological and Psychotherapy, 3(3), 176-184.

Jaycox, L. H., Zoellner, L., & Foa, E. B. (2002). Cognitive-Behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors. Psychotherapy in Practice, 58(3), 891-906.

Kessler, R, C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic Stress disorder in the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2, 1048-1060.

Khoury, B., & Ammar, J. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of primary care patients presenting with psychological disorders. The Libyan Journal of Medicine, 9, 24186. doi:10.3402/ljm.v9.24186

Kilpatrick, D. G., & Amick, A. E, (1985). Rape trauma. In M. Hersen & C. Last. (Eds.), Behavior therapy casebook (pp.86-103). New York: Springer.

Liberzon, I., & Abelson, J. L. (2016). Context processing and the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuron, 92(1), 14–30. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.09.039

Linn, D., & Linn, M. (1993). Healing life’s hurts. New York, N.Y: Paulist Press.

Lowe S. R., Walsh K., Uddin M., Galea S., & Koenen K. C. (2014). Bidirectional relationships between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of Detroit residents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 533–544. doi:10.1037/a0037046

McFarlane, A. C. (1989). The etiology of post-traumatic morbidity: Predisposing, Precipitating and perpetuating factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 221-228.

McPherson, D. (2003). Anxiety disorders. New York, N.Y: Springer.

Meichenbaum, D. H. (1985). Stress inoculation training. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Renolds, W. M., & Coats, K. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and relaxation for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 93, 235-238.

Resick, P. A. (2001). Stress and trauma. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press Ltd.

Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1993). Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Sayed, S., Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(8), 70. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0612-y

Smith H. L., Summers B. J., Dillon K. H., & Cougle J. R. (2016). Is worst-event trauma type related to PTSD symptom presentation and associated features? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 38, 55–61. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.01.007

Smoller, J. W. (2016). The genetics of stress-related disorders: PTSD, depression, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 297–319. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.266


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.