Background: With psycho-educational programs, patients diagnosed with vesico vaginal fistula can have increase in their psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of the eight-session group psycho-educational program designed to improved positive psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life.

Method: A pretest/posttest control group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of psycho-education.A structured questionnaire which tapped information on socio-demographic characteristics: HRQoL (α=0.79), Pain Self-efficacy (α=0.81), Optimism (α=0.82), Social support (α=0.87), Coping strategies (α=0.80) and Perceived cultural practices (α=0.91) scales was administered to the participants. Thirty participants clinically diagnosed VVF patients with low scores on HRQoL were randomly assigned into two groups of 15 (experimental and control) at the VVF unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Treatment which consisted of eight sessions focused on knowledge of VVF, awareness of positive qualities, psychological impact of VVF and visual tools on VVF were involved. The HRQoL was used for assessing quality of life at posttest.

Results: The VVF patients in the experimental group at posttest had significant higher mean score on HRQoL (89.02±1.09) compared to the control group at posttest with lower mean score (79.11±1.10). They also scored higher on optimism (59.05±7.25), self-efficacy (48.52±9.34), problem-focused (66.13±9.62), emotion-focused (54.17±8.91), social support (60.05±8.62) and lower on perceived cultural practices (33.74±9.30).

Conclusion: Psycho-educational program improved psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in sampled patients in Zaria. Relevant organizations should consider continuous application of psycho-education for longterm effect in improving the quality of life of vesico vaginal fistula patients.


Health-related quality of life, Psycho-education, Vesico vaginal fistula, Positive psychosocial factors.

Full Text:



Abooee, A., Sahaf, R., Kamrani, A. A., Lotfi, M. H., Heidari, F and Shahmansouri, N. (2017).The effect of psycho-education on quality of life and dependency in elderlies.Elderly health Journal, 3(2), 107-112.

Ahmed, S., Anastasi, F and Laski, L. (2016). Double burden of tragedy: still birth and obstetric fistula. Lancet Global Health, 4(2), 80-82.

Arrowsmith, S., Hamlin, E. C and Wall, L. L. (1996). Obstructed labour injury complex: obstetric fistula formation and the multifaceted morbidity of maternal birth trauma in the developing world. Obstetric Gynaecological Survey, 51(9), 568-74.

Asghari, A.,& Nicholas, M.K. (2007). Pain self efficacy beliefs and pain behaviour A prospective study. Pain, 94, 85-100.

Bauer, M. S., McBride, L., Williford, W. O., Glick, H., Kinosian, B., Altshuler, L and Sajatovic, M. (2006). Cooperative Studies Program 430 Study Team: Collaborative care for bipolar disorder, II: impact on clinical outcome, function and costs. Psychiatric Services, 57(7), 937-945.

Bellivier, F., Yon, L., Luquiens, A., Azorin, J. M., Bertsch, J., Gerard, S and Lukasiewicz, M. (2011). Suicidal attempts in bipolar disorder: results from an observational study (EMBLEM). Bipolar Disorders, 13(4), 377-386.

Benzur, H. (2005). Coping, Distress and Life Events in a community Sample: International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 188 – 196.

Bultz, B. D., Speca, M., Brasher, P. M., Geggie, P. H and Page, S. A. (2000).A randomized controlled trial of a brief psycho-educational support group for partners of early stage breast cancer patients.Pschooncology, 9, 303-313.

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., and Weintraub, J. K. (1998).Assessing coping strategies. A theoretical based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267 – 283.

Colom, F. (2012). Social cognition and its potential role in bipolar disorder roughening an editorial comments to Samame, C, Matino, D. J, Strejilevich, S. social cognition in euthymic bipolar disorder: Systematic review and meta-analytic approach. Acta Psychiatric Scandinavian, 125, 264-265.

Cunningham, A. J. (2000). Adjuvant psychological therapy for cancer patients: putting it on the same footing as adjunctive medical therapies. Psychooncology, 9, 367-371.

De Bernis, L. (2009). Obstructed fistula: guildingpriciples for clinical management and programme development, a new WHO guildline.International Journal of Gynaecologic, 99(1), 117- 121.

Dixon, L., Mcfarlane, W., Lefley, H., Lucksted, A., Cohen, M and Fallon, I. (2001). Evidence-based practices for services to families of people with psychiatric disabilities.Psychiatric Services, 52, 903-908.

Dixon, L., Adams, C and Lucksted, A. (2000). Update on family psycho-education for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 5-20.

Dixon, L. (1999). Providing services to families of persons with schizophemia: present and future.Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 2, 3 – 8.

Dogan, S and Sabanciogullari, S. (2003). The effects of patient education in lithium therapy on quality of life and compliance.Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 17(6), 270-275.

Dyck, D. G., Hendryx, M. S., Short, R. A., Voss, W. D and Mcfarlane, W. R. (2002). Service use among patients with schizophrenia in psycho-educational multiple family group treatment.Psychiatric Services, 53, 749-754.

Fox, S and Lantz, C. (1998). The brain tumor experience and quality of life: a qualitative study. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 30(4), 245-252.

Garrett, J. W and Drossman, D. A. (1990).Health status in inflammatory bowel disease.Gastroenterol, 1(99), 90-96.

Gumus, F., Buzlu, S and Cakir, S. (2017). The effectiveness of individual psycho-education on functioning and quality of life with bipolar disorder in Turkey: A randomized controlled study. International Journal of Caring Science, 10(1), 490-502.

Gumus, F., Buzlu, S and Cakir, S. (2016). A sampled individual psycho-education model for bipolar disorder.Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 7(3), 142-147.

Gumus, F., Buzlu, S and Cakir, S. (2015). Effectiveness of individual psycho-education on recurrence in bipolar disorder: A controlled study. Achieves of psychiatric Nursing, 29(3), 174-179.

Gutman, R. E., Dodson, J. L and Mostwin, J. L. (2007). Complications of treatment of obstetric fistula in the developing world: gynatresia, urinary incontinence and urinary diversion. International Gynecologic Obstetric, 99(1), 52-64.

Hjortswang, H., Jarnerot, G., Curman, B., Sandberg-Gertzen, H. … Strom, M. (2003).The influence of demographic and disease-related factors in health-related quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis. European Journal of GastroenterolHepatol, 15, 1011-1020.

Janke, K. H., Klump, B., Gregor, M., Meisner, C and Haeuser, W. (2005).Determinants of life satisfaction in inflammatory bowel disease.Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 11(3), 272-286.

LePola, T., Toljamo, N., Aho, R and Louet, T. (2001). Being a brain tumor patients: a descriptive study of patients` experiences.Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 33(3), 143.

Mcfarlane, W. R., Dixon, L., Lukens, E and Lucksted, A. (2003). Family psycho-education and schizophrenia: A review of literature. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29, 223-245.

McGillion, A. V., Watt-Watson, N. P., &Cosman., M. (2008). Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Interventions for Improving Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Psychological well Being in Patients with Stable Angina. Current Cardiology Reviews. 4(1), 1-11.

Michalak, E. E., Yatham, L. N and Lam, R. W. (2005). Quality of life in bipolar disorder: a review of the literature. Health and Quality of life Outcomes, 3: 72.

Montero, I., Asencio, A., Harnandez, I., Masanet, M. J., Lacruz, M and Bellver, F. (2001).Two strategies for family intervention in schizophrenia.A randomized trial in a Mediterranean environment.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 661-670.

Muleta, M., Hamlin, E. C., Fantahun, M., Tafesse, B., Kennedy, R. C and Tafesse, B. (2008). Health and social problems encountered by treated and untreated obstetric fistula patients in rural Ethopia. Journal of Obstetric Gynaecology, 30(1), 44 – 50.

Nicholas, M.K.(2006). The pain self-efficacy questionnaire: taking pain into account. European Journal of pain,2,1-10.

Osotimehin, B. (2013). Obstetric fistula: ending the health and human rights tragedy. Lancet, 381, 1702-1703.

Peninx, B. W., Van Tilburg, T., Kriegsman, D. M., Boeke, A. J., Deeg, D. J., & Van Eijk, J. T. (1999).Social network, social support and loneliness in older persons with different chronic diseases.Journal of Aging and Health, 11, 151 – 168.

Roso, M. C., Moreno, R. A and Costa, E. M. (2005). Psycho-educational intervention in mood disorders: an experience of affective disorders study group. Review Bras Psiquiatr, 27: 165.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S. & Bridges, M. W. (1994).Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (trait anxiety, self-mastery and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 1063-1078.

Scott, J., Colom, F., Valenti, A. B. N., Sanchez-Moreno, J. M. G and Vieta, M. A. A. (2009). Long term mental health resource utilization and cost of care following group psycho-education or unstructured group support for bipolar disorders: a cost-benefit analysis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70(3), 378-386.

Seligman, M. E. P and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5 – 14.

Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M., & O’Connell, K. A. (2004). The Word Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of Life assessment: Psycho-metric properties and results of the international field trial. A Report from the WHOQOL Group.Quality of Life Research, 13, 299-310.

Straub, R. O. (2007). Health psychology: A biopsychosial approach. New York, NY; Macmillan.

Sullivan, M. J. L. (2010). Progressive Goal Attainment Program.Treatment manual 3rd edition.

Tennfjord, M. K., Muleta, M and Kiserud, T. (2014).Musculoskeletal sequelea in patients with obstetric fistula- a case-control study.BMC Women Health, 14: 136.

Vainboim, T. B., Pereira Franco, M.H., Ciccone, A.O., Miura, F.K., Pires de Aguiar, P.H., Scaff, M., &Nagahashi Marie, S. K. (2014).Psychoeducation improves the quality of life of informal caregivers of Glioblastoma patients. Medical Express,1(3), 158-165.

Wall, L. L. (2012).A framework for analyzing the determinants of obstetric fistula formation.Studies of Family Planning, 43, 255-272.

Wall, L. L. (2006).Obstetric vesico vaginal fistula as an international public health problem.The Lancet, 368(9542), 1201-1209.

WHOQOL Group. (1998). “Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assessment.” Psychological Medicine, 28, 551-558.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988).The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.