ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, SOCIAL ANXIETY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY, ADO EKITI AND OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, AGO IWOYE UNDERGRADUATES IN NIGERIA.
The study examined the influence of alcohol dependence on social anxiety and psychological well being by comparatively studying undergraduates from Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye (OOU) and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti (EKSU). A total of 191 students drawn from the two institutions participated in the study, using the snowball sampling technique. They included 96 from Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti (41 females and 55 males) and 95 from Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye (48 females and 47 males). Alcohol Dependence Scale, General Health Questionnaire (28), and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale were used to measure alcohol dependence, psychological well being and social anxiety respectively. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using both the t-test and the Analysis of Variance. Results of data analysis revealed that alcohol dependence significantly affects social anxiety [r (191) = -.162, P,.05]. It was also shown that alcohol dependence has a significant influence on social dysfunction [t (189) = 2.32, P<.01] and anxiety insomnia [t (189) = 1.86, P<.05] (two of the four sub-scales of psychological well-being). Results also revealed a significant difference in alcohol dependence between students from institutions [F (1,190) = 11.48, P<.05] with Ekiti State University undergraduates (x=14.16) being more dependent on alcohol than their Olabisi Onabanjo University undergraduate (x=9.37) counterparts; and that males are significantly highly dependent on alcohol than their female counterparts. Findings from the study were discussed in line with available literature and it was recommended that undergraduates should be properly guided by both the law enforcement agents, parents and school administrators while also being exposed to the consequences of drug, especially alcohol, dependence and the use of illicit substances.
Ajzen I. (2001). Nature and Operation of Attitude. Annual Reviews of Psychology: 52, 27-58
Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of Planned Behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes: 50 (2), 179-211.
Ajzen I. (1989). Attitude Structure and Behaviour. Kuwait: University press.
Akanni, O. O. and Adayonfo, E. O. (2015). Correlates of psychoactive substance use among Nigeria adolescents. Sahel Medical Journal: 18(4), 192-199.
Allan N., Albanese B., Norr N., Zvolensky M, & Schmidt N. (2014). Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained medication through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives. Addictions: 110(2), 260-268.
American Psychiatric Association, DSM of Mental Disorders (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders (4th Ed). New York: Washington, DC
Arnette J. (2000), High hopes in grim world: Emerging adults views of their future and of generations. Youth and society: 31, 267-286
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Oxford, England: Prentice hall.
Bandura, A. and Walters R. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York; Rinehart and Winston.
Bosari B. and Carey K. (2001). Peer influence on college drinking: a review of research. Journal of Substance Abuse: 13, 391-424
Canadian Mental Health Association, Newfoundland and Labrador Division (CMHA-NL) (2001).Valuing Mental Health. Canada: Ontario
Clayton, R. and Ritter, C. (1985). The epidemiology of alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Advances in alcohol and Substance Abuse: 4(3-4), 69-97.
Colic-baric, Satalic and Lukesic, C. Z. (2003). Nutrition value of meals, dietary habit and nutritive status in Croatia University students according to gender. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition:54, 473-488.
Danielle M. and Kenneth S. (2011). Predicting alcohol consumption in adolescence from alcohol specific and general externalizing genetic risk factors, key environmental exposures and their interaction. Psychological Medicine: 41(7), 1507-1516.
Diener, S. (1977). Recent findings on subjective wellbeing. India Journal of Clinical Psychology: 24, 25-41.
Doyle, S. R. and Donovan, D. M. (2009). A validation study of the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs: 70(5), 689-699.
Ellickson, P. and Morton, S. (1999). Identifying adolescents at risk for hard drug use: Racial/ethnic variations. Journal of Adolescent Health: 25(6), 382-395.
Ellickson, P. L., Tucker, J. S, and Klein, D. J. (2003). Ten-year prospective study of public health problems associated with heavy drinking. Paediatrics: 111 (5 pt 1), 949-955.
Falide, I. and Ramos, I. (2000). Validity and Reliability of the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 53(4): 359-365.
Fredrick, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Crown.
Goldberg, D. (1988). A user’s guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
Gorka S., Shanksman S., Olino T., Seeley J., Kosty D., and Lewinsohn P. (2014). Anxiety and risk for alcohol disorders: the moderating effect of parental support. Drug and alcohol Dependence: 140, 191-197
Helfish, M. (2013). Social anxiety’s effect on alcohol use among students. Posters book 15.
Hingson, R.and Zha W. (2009). Age of drinking onset, alcohol use disorders, frequent heavy drinking and unintentional injuring oneself and others after drinking. Paediatric: 123(6), 1477-1484.
Irwin, R., Godfry, M., Stephen, K., and Howard, I, (1965). A national study of health, attitude and behaviour. Michigan:Ann Arbor University, Michingan school of public health.
Mahesh Thakkar (2014). Alcohol interferes with body’s ability to regulate sleep. Science Daily, 10th December. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141210162326.htm>.
Martin, F. and Icek A. (1973). Belief, Attention, Intention and Behaviour: An introduction to theory and research reading. MA: Addison
Mattick, R.and Clarke, J. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy: 36(4), 455-475
.Moronkola, O.A. (2003). Current status, Challenges and Future of School Health Education in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Development, 1&2: 11-19.
National Electronic Library for Mental Health (NeLMH). (2004). Defining Mental Health Promotion: Risk and Protective Factors. Mentality.Retrieved March 27, 2007 from: http//www.nelmh.net/pageview.asp?c=22& did=235&fc=004002.
NIMHE/CSIP (2005). Making it possible: Improving Mental Health and Wellbeing in England. Leeds: National Institute for Mental Health in England.
Odejide, A. O., Ohaeri, J. U. and Ikuesan, B. A. (1989). Alcohol use among Nigeria youths: The need for drug education and alcohol policy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence: 23(3), 231-235.
Osikoya, K.A. and Alli, A. (2006). Studies on perception of drug abuse among Nigeria undergraduates. World Journal of Medical Sciences.1(2),133-139.
Rosemary Iconis (2014). Understanding alcohol abuse among college students: Contributing factors and strategies for intervention. Contemporary Issues in Education Research: 7(3), 243-248.
Samuel, P.S., Fasuyi, O.O, and Azuwuine Njoku, P. (1979) A new tropical health science for West African. Ibadan: Macmillan.
Schry, A.R ,Norberg ,M.M, Maddox, B.B, and White, S.N.(2014). Gender matter: The Relationship between social anxiety and alcohol related consequences. PLOS One: e115361. doi:10.1371
Schulenberg, J. and Maggs, J. (2007). A development perspective on substance use during adolescent and the transition to young adulthood: Monitoring. The Future Occasional Paper no. 51, Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research
Skinner, H. A. and Horn, J. L. (1984). Alcohol Dependence Scale: User’s Guide. Toronto, Canada: Addiction Research Foundation.
Staff, K. (2012). Drug use on the rise among Nigerian youths. http:// new2onlinenigeria.com/news/top-stories/144286-drug-use-on-the-rise-amongnigeria-youths.html.
Sterling, M. (2011). General Health Questionnaire 28. Journal of Physiotherapy: 57, 2011-2059.
Stevens, S., Cludius, B., Bantin, T. ,Hermann, C. and Gerlach, A.L.(2013). The motive to drink due to social anxiety and it’s relation to hazardous alcohol use. Psychology, Addiction and Behaviour: 27(3), 806-813
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2012). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. US Department of Health and Human Services: Rockville.
Thombs, D. L., Olds, R. S., Bondy, S. J., Winchell, B. D. and Rehm, J. (2009). Undergraduate Drinking and Academic Performance: A Prospective Investigation with Objective Measures. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs: 70(5), 776-785.
Wesley, S. (1980). Understanding attitude and predicting social behaviour. Engle wood Ciffs, NY: Prentice Hall
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.