INTERNET ADDICTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS: THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER AND PERSONALITY
The increasing use of internet for economic and societal sustenance, along with adolescents’ exposure and encouragement towards being computer inclined has necessitated the need to investigate the extent and contributions of personality traits on internet addictions among male and female adolescents separately. Using the expo-factor design, 300 adolescents (male = 165; female = 135) whose age ranges from 16 to 21 (Mean = 20.52; SD = 2.49) were selected from a State University in Nigeria. Administering the Big Five Inventory and Internet Addiction Test, 5 hypotheses were tested. The findings revealed that internet addiction decreases with increase in agreeableness (R2 = .16, β = -.40, p< .01) and conscientiousness (R2 = .19, β = -.21, p< .05) personality traits among male adolescents, while internet addiction decreases with increase in agreeableness (R2 = .16, β = -.40, p <.01) among female adolescents, but with less variance contributed compared to that of male. Both gender experienced internet addiction increasing with increase in neuroticism personality trait [male-(R2 = .27, β = .12, p> .05); female-(R2 = .20, β = .12, p> .05)], with more variance contributed by male compared to female adolescents. The society and concerned care giver should consider adolescents with these personality factors and provide the required support and control as regard utilization of the internet.
Abdullah, A., Hatim, A., & Mohammed, A. (2015). Internet addiction among Taif University students and its association with psychiatric co-morbidities. Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 3(12), 536-544.
Ahlan, A. R., &Balogun, N. A. (2013). Internet usage and personality traits: finding relationship in learning institution. Transnational Journal of Science Technology, 3(3), 1-13
Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim, T., Brunborg, G. S., &Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a facebook addiction scale. Psychological Reports, 110 (2), 501-517.
Ayas, T., Çakır, Ö.,&Horzum, M. B. (2011). Ergenleriçinbilgisayarbağımlılığıölçeği. KastamonuEğitimDergisi, 19(2), 439-448.
Ayatollahi, J., Ayatollahi, F., &Bahrololoomi, R. (2010). Using the internet among dental students in Yazd. Dent Res J (Isfahan), 7, 7–11.
Azizah, Z., Marina, M.D., & Marini, O. (2013). Impacts due to internet addiction among Malaysian University students. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(9), 1922-1928
Bahrainian, A., &Khazaee, A. (2014). Internet addiction among students: the relation of self-esteem and depression. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 3(3), 1-6
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta analysis. Personality Psychology, 44(1), 1-26
Batıgün, A. D., &Kilic, N. (2011). The relationships between internet addiction, social support, psychological symptoms and some socio-demographical variables. TürkPsikolDerg., 26(67), 1-10
Borcuch, A., Piłat-Borcuch, M., &Świerczyńska-Kaczor, U. (2012). The influence of the internet on globalization process. Journal of Economics and Business Research 1, 118-129
Buckner, V. J. E., Caastille, C. M., & Sheets, T. L. (2012). The five factor model of personality and employees’ excessive use of technology. Computer in Human Behaviour, 28(5), 1947-1953
Büyükşahin-Çevik, G. &Çelikkaleli, Ö. (2010). Ergenlerinarkadaşbağlılığıve internet bağımlılığınıncinsiyet, ebeveyntutumuveanne-baba eğitimdüzeylerinegöreincelenmesi.
Casey, B. J., Tottenham, N., Liston, C., &Durston, S. (2005). Imaging the developing brain: What have we learned about cognitive development? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 104-110.
Çelik, S., Atak, H., & Bas-al, A. (2012). Predictive role of personality traits on internet addiction. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 13(4), 10-24.
Ceyhan, E. (2008). Ergenruhsağlığıaçısındanbir risk faktörü: İnternet bağımlılığı. CocukveGenclikRuhSağlığıDergisi, 15(2), 109-116.
Charlton, J. P., &Danforth, I. D. W. (2010). Validating the distinction between computer addiction and engagement: Online game playing and personality. Behaviour & Information Technology, 29(6), 601-613.
Chien, H. K., & Cheng, C. (2006). Tridimentional personality of adolescents with internet addiction and substance use experience. Can Journal of psychiatry, 51(14), 884-894.
Clarke, S., & Robertson, I. T. (2005). A meta-analytic review of the Big Five personality factors and accident involvement in occupational and non-occupational settings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 355-376. DOI:10.1348/096317905X26183
Cooper, D. (2003). Psychology, risk and safety. Professional Safety, 48, 39-46.
Costa, P. T. Jr., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2), 322–331. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992. PMID 11519935
Dargahi, H., &Razavi, S. M. (2007). Internet addiction and its risk factors in residents of Tehran. Payesh Journal, 3, 265-272.
Eksi F. (2012). Examination of narcissistic personality traits' predicting level of internet addiction and cyber bullying through path analysis. Education Science Theory Practical, 12(3), 1694-1706.
Emmanuel, B., &Barau, N. B. (2013). Problems and prospects of learning computer amongst students of post primary schools in Nigeria. Scholarly Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2(2), 17 – 22.
Floros, G., &Siomos, K. (2014). Excessive internet use and personality traits. CurrBehavNeurosci Reports, 1, 19-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40473-014-0006-1
Ge, Y., Se, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Research on relationship among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health of urban left-behind children. Global Journal of Health Sciences, 7(4), 60-69. doi:10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p60
Griffiths, M. (2000). Does internet and computer "addiction" exist? Some case study evidence. Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 2 (3), 217
Griffiths, M. D, (2003). Internet abuse in the workplace—Issues and concerns for employers and employment counselors. Journal of Employment Counseling, 40, 87–96.
Gross, A. N. (2004). Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people? Motives and use of Facebook. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Gross, E., (2004). Adolescent internet use: What we expect, what teens report.Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 633-649
Günüç, S., &Kayri, M. (2010). Türkiye’de internet bağımlılıkprofilive İnternet BağımlılıkÖlçeğiningeliştirilmesi: Geçerlik-güvenirlikçalışması. HacettepeUniversitesiEğitimFakultesiDergisi, 39, 220-232.
Herrera, C. M., &Bazaga, P. (2010). Epignetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet viola cazorlensis. New Phytologist, 187, 867-876. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03298.x
Huang, X., Zhang, H., Li, M., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., & Tao, R. (2010). Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with internet addiction disorder. Cyber Psychology, Behaviour, and Social Networking, 13 (4), 401-406. DOI: 10.1089=cyber.2009.0222
John, O. P., Dominue, E. M., &Kentie, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory – Versions 40 and 54. Berkeley University of California at Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
Katz, E. (1959). Mass communications research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this Journal. Studies in Public Communications, 2, 1-6
Kausar, S., &Zobia, B. (2006). Effect of excessive internet use on undergraduate students in Pakistan. Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 9(3), 297-307 DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9 .297
Kesici, Ş., Şahin, İ., Özteke, H. İ. & Li, S. M. (2010). College students’ internet addiction and use of internet functions in Turkey and Taiwan: A comparative study. Paper presented at 10. International Educational Technology Conference, İstanbul.
King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Clinical interventions for technology-based problems: Excessive Internet and video game use. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 26, 43-56.
Kuss, J. K., Griffiths, M. D., & Binder, J. F. (2013). Internet addiction in students: prevalence and risk factors. Computer and Human Behaviour, 29, 959-966. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.024
Lavin, M. J., Yuen, C. N., Weinman, M., &Kozak, K. (2004). Internet dependence in the collegiate population: the role of shyness. Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 7(4), 379–383.
Liao, C., & Lee, C. (2009). An Empirical Study of Employee Job Involvement and Personality Traits: The Case of Taiwan. Journal of Economics and Management 3(1), 22-36
Liu, T., & Potenza, M. N. (2007). Problematic internet use: Clinical implications. CNS Spectrums, 12(6), 453-466.
Meerkerk, G. J., Van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Vermulst, A. A., &Garretsen, H. F. L. (2007). The relationship between personality, psychosocial wellbeing and compulsive Internet use: The Internet as cyber Prozac? Pawned by the Internet - Explorative research into the causes and consequences of compulsive Internet use (pp. 86-101). Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Meerkerk, G., Van den Eijnden, R .J. J. M., Franken, I. H. A., &Garretsen, H. F. L. (2010). Is compulsive internet use related to sensitivity to reward and punishment, and impulsivity? Computers in Human Behavior 26: 729-735.
Mehroof, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Online gaming addiction: The role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 13(3), 313-316.
Moayedfar, S., Habibpoor-Gatabi, K., &Ganji, A. (2007). Study of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults aged 15-25 in Tehran. Rasane Journal, 1(4), 3-4. [Persian]
O'Connor, B. (2002). A quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality inventories. Assessment, 9(2), 188–203. doi:10.1177/1073191102092010 . PMID 12066834
Ofodu, G. O. (2012). Internet use and reading habits of higher institution students. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies. 3(1), 11-15
Oji, R. (2007). Reading habits among Nigerian youths: Issues. Nigerian Library Link, (1), 93-100
Omoluabi, P. F. (2002). Big Five Inventory Manual. Lagos: PPC Nigeria Agency.
Omotayo, B. O. (2006). A survey of internet access and usage among undergraduates in an African University. The International Information and Library Review 38, 215-224
Osei, T.A. (2007). ICT for Education in Nigeria Survey of ICT and Education in Africa. Retrieved from http://www.infodev.org
Oztürk, C., Bektas, M., Ayar, D., Oztornaci, B. O., &Yagci, D. (2015). Association of personality traits and risk of internet addiction in adolescents. Asian Nursing Research, 9, 120-124
Samarein, Z. A., Far, N. S., Yekleh, M., Tahmasebi, S., Yaryavi, F., Ramezani V., & Sandi, L. (2013). Relationship between personality traits and internet addiction of students at Kharazmi University. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Research, 2 (1), 10-17.
Schmitt, D. P., Realo, A., Voracek, M., &Allik, J. (2008). Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 (1): 168–182. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52. PMID 18179326 .
Servidio, R. (2014). Exploring the effects of demographic factors, Internet usage and personality traits on Internet addiction in a sample of Italian university students.Computer and Human Behaviour, 35, 85-92. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.024
Soto, C. J., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2011). Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: Big Five Domains and Facets in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(2), 330–348. doi:10.1037/a0021717 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0021717). PMID 21171787 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21171787)
Teke, R. (2011). A comparison of Facebook Addiction between social and hard sciences’ students. Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU).
Tutgun, A., Deniz, L., & Moon, M. K. (2011). A comparative study of problematic internet use and loneliness among Turkish and Korean prospective teachers. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(4), 14-30
Van der Aa, N., Overbeek, G., Engels, R. C. M. E., Scholte, R. H. J., Meerkerk, G. J., & Van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M. (2009). Daily and compulsive Internet use and well-being in adolescence: A diathesis-stress model based on Big Five personality traits. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(6), 765-776.
West, R., & Brown, J. (2013). Theory of addiction [Internet]. 2th ed. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [cited 2014 Jan 15]http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781118484920_sample_425778.pdf.
Whang, L. S, & Chang, G. (2004). Lifestyles of virtual world residents: Living in the online game Lineage. Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 7, 592–600.
Young, K. S. (1998). Development and measurement of internet addiction scale. Cyber Psy- chology and Behaviour, 1(3), 237-244.
Young, K. S. (2004). Internet addiction: a new clinical phenomenon and its consequences. Am Behavioural Science, 48, 402-415.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764204270278
Zamani, B. E., Abedini, Y., &Kheradmand, A., (2011). Internet addiction based on personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman, Iran. Addiction and Health, 3, 85-91
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.