SEXUAL HARASSMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF ORGANISATIONAL OUTCOMES.

FEMI FRED AKINFALA, TUNDE KOMOLAFE

Abstract


The impact of sexual harassment on the performance of organisations may have taken its toll while remaining an open secret.  Females have traditionally been on the receiving end of this harassment and the present study acknowledges this reality.  To this end, this study explored the extent to which sexual harassment predicted organisational variables such as job satisfaction, turnover intentions and organisational commitment among a sample of female bank employees.  Several theories indicate a link between sexual harassment and these organisational variables and they include attribution theory (Heider, 1958; Kelley, 1967; Weiner, 1985) as well as perspectives drawn from the sources of power (French & Raven, 1959).  The study sample was composed of 103 women who responded to items in the following instruments: Sexual Harassment Scale (SHS), Intention to Turnover Scale (ITS) and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.  It was discovered that most sexually harassed females were predominantly younger and of lower status in the organisation.  Sexual harassment was also a strong predictor of turnover intentions among female employees.  These findings were discussed in the light of prevailing studies and the appropriate theoretical backdrop.

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adeyemo, D.A. & Afolabi, J.O. (2007). Influence of Sexual Harassment, Occupational Stress, Emotional Intelligence

and Job Satisfaction on Withdrawal Cognition of Female Media Practitioners in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pakistani

Journal of Social Sciences, 4(4), 639-646.

Akinbode, G. A. (2012). Development and validation of the Sexual Harassment Scale (SHS). Unpublished

manuscript, Dept. of Psychology, University of Lagos.

Aquino, K., Tripp, T. M., & Bies, R. J. (2001). How employees respond to personal offense: The effects of blame

attribution, victim status, and offender status on revenge and reconciliation in the workplace. Journal of

Applied Psychology, 86, 52-59.

Berry, L. M. (1997). Psychology at work. San Francisco: McGraw Hill Companies Inc.

Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: the socialisation of managers in work organizations.

Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 533-546.

Burke, P. J. (1991). Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836-849.

Caplan, R.D., Cobb, S., French, J.R.P., Jr., Harrison, R.V., & Pinneau, S.R. (1975). Job Demands and Worker

Health, HEW Publication No. (NIOSH), 75-160.

Cleveland, J. N., & Kerst, M. E. (1993). Sexual harassment and perceptions of power: An under-articulated

relationship. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 42, 49-67.

Collier, R. (1995). Combating sexual harassment in the workplace. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Fitzgerald, L. F., Swan, S., & Magley, V. J. (1997). But was it really sexual harassment? Legal, behavioural, and

psychological definitions of the workplace victimization of women. In W. O'Donohue (Ed.), Sexual

harassment: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 5-28). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

French, J. R. P., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power

(pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Gruber J. (2003). Sexual harassment in the public sector. In Paludi M, Paludi CA, Jr. (Eds.), Academic and workplace

sexual harassment: A handbook of cultural, social science, management, and legal perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.

Gruber, J. E., Smith, M., & Kauppinen-Toropainen, K. (1996). Sexual harassment types and severity: Linking

research and policy. In M. S. Stockdale (Ed.), Sexual harassment in the work place: Perspectives, frontiers,and response strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hanisch, K. A, Hulin, C. L., & Roznowski, M. (1998). The importance of individuals’ repertoires of behaviours: The

scientific appropriateness of studying multiple behaviours and general attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 463–480.

Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.

Hogler, R., Frame, J. H., and Thornton, G. (2002). Workplace sexual harassment law: An empirical analysis of

organizational justice and legal policy. Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(2), 234-250.

Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (ed.) Nebraska symposium on motivation,

pp. 192–238. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Kelloway, E. K., Gottlieb, B. H., & Barham, L. (1999). The source nature and direction of work and family conflict: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 337-346.

Lapierre, L. M., Spector, P. E., & Leck, J. D. (2005). Sexual versus nonsexual workplace aggression and victims’

overall job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 155–169.

Locke, K.D. & Horowitz, L.M. (1990). Satisfaction in Interpersonal Interactions as a Function of Similarity in Level of Dysphoria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 823-831

Magley, V. J., Hulin, C.L., Fitzgerald, L.F. & DeNardo, M. (1999). Outcomes of self-labelling sexual harassment.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 390–402.

Martinko, M. J., Gundlach, M. J., & Douglas, S. C. (2002). Toward and integrative theory of counterproductive work

behaviour: A causal reasoning perspective. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Special

Counterproductive Behaviours at Work, 10, 36-50.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mogaji, A.A. (1997). Effect of organisational climate on employees’ commitment, involvement and motivation in some Nigerian manufacturing industries. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Dept. of Psychology, University of Lagos.

Mueller, C. W., De Coster, S., & Estes, S. B. (2001). Sexual harassment in the workplace: Unanticipated

consequences of modern social control in organizations. Work and Occupations, 28(4), 411-446.

Nouman, B. & Abassi, A. S. (2014). Sexual Harassment at the Workplace: A Case of the Banking Sector in Lahore.

Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 20 (5), 558-566, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.20.05.11567

Ogbonnaya, L.U., Ogbonnaya C.E. & Emma-Echiegu N.B. (2011). Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimisation of Female students in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and

Primary Health Care, 23, (1 & 2).

O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Paetzold, R. L., & Griffin, R. W. (2000). Sexual harassment as aggressive behaviour: An actor- based perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25, 372-388.

Olubayo-Fatiregun, M.A. (2007). Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A common crime against women

undergraduates in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria.

http://www.actividadfisicayciencias.com/sexual_Harrassment_2009_Sep%5B1%5D.Pdf. Accessed August 27, 2007.

Rousseau, D.M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organisations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Schneider, K. T., Swan, S., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: Empirical evidence from two organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 401–415.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. New York, NY, US: W. H.

Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.

Smith, P.C., L.M. Kendall, & C.L. Hulin (1969). The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement. Chicago:

Rand McNally.

Stanko, E. A. (1988). Keeping women in and out of line: Sexual harassment and occupational segregation. In S.

Walby (Ed.), Gender segregation at work. Milton Keynes, UK: OpenUniversity Press.

Stets, J. E. (2005). Examining emotions in identity theory. Social Psychological Quarterly, 68, 39-74.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behaviour. In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin

(Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Tett, R. P. and Meyer, J. P. (1993. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-290.

Wanous, J. P. (1974). Individual Differences and Reactions to Job Characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology,

, 616-622.

Weiner, B. (1985). An attribution theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–73.

Weiss, D.J., Dawis, R.V. England, G. W. & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction

Questionnaire. Vol. 22, Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, Minneapolis: University of

Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center.

Willness, C. R., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace

sexual harassment. Personnel Psychology, 60, 127–162. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00067.x.

Work Harassment (2012). Sexual harassment in the workplace. Retrieved from

http://www.workharassment.net/index.php/sexual-harassment-in-the-workplace.html (accessed September 7, 2013).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.