THE MODERATOR EFFECT OF INCOME AND SOCIAL STATUS, SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON HEALTHY AGEING AMONGST OLDER ADULTS IN IBADAN METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

OJO Yetunde Abiola

Abstract


Old age is a developmental period of declining health and functioning. Developmental psychologists argued that living actively and successfully after the age of 65 implies healthy lifestyle habits that start as early as possible in life. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine the factors that could predict healthy ageing. This study investigated the moderating influence of income and social status, social connectedness and physical activity on healthy ageing among older adults. A total sample of 48 males and 39 females (87 subjects) between 65 and 80 years who participated in the study were volunteers recruited from institutions such as community centers, welfare centers, and church programmes for adults in Ibadan metropolis. Descriptive research design of correlation type was used in the study. Four standardized scales were administered to the respondents and the data obtained was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression analysis. Three research questions were raised and answered in the study. The result showed that healthy ageing significantly correlated with income and social status (r = .783; p<.05), social connectedness (r = .693; p<.05) and physical activity (r = .863; p<.05), independent variables (income and social status, social connectedness and physical activity) have significant effect on the healthy ageing of older adults(R =.711 & R2 =.674) which means that the independent variables accounted for 67.4% in the prediction of healthy ageing. Each of the independent variables made a significant contribution to the prediction of healthy ageing and in term of magnitude of contribution, social connectedness made the most significant contribution (Beta= .663; t= .856; p<0.05) to the prediction while other variables made significant contributions in the following order: income and social status (Beta= .283; t= .503; p<0.05) and physical activity (Beta= .154; t= .375; p<0.05). Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended that older people should maintain social connection with family and friends. Government should adopt measures that could improve the economy of the country.



Keywords


Healthy ageing, older people, income and social status, social connectedness, physical activity

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


REFERENCES

Adler, B.R and Towne, N. (1999). Looking out, looking in (9th Ed.). Forth Worth: Harbour Brace College.

Aggarwal, Bhasin, Sharma, Chhabra, Aggarwal and Rajoura (2005). The Development and Validation of Socio-economic status scale. MIS Quarterly, 35(4): 831-858.

Borghouts, L.B, Keizer, H.A (2000). Exercise and insulin sensitivity: A Review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 21(1):1-12.

Bronfenbrenner, U. and Morris, P. A. (1998). The Ecology of Developmental Processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical models of Human Development Vol. 1, 5th ed., pp. 993–1023. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Canadian Community Health Survey (2014). Physical Activity Monitor. Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute Progress in Prevention, Bulletin no. 24. Ottawa: CFLRI.

Craig C., Russell S., Cameron C., and Bauman A. (2004). Twenty-year trends in physical activity among Canadian adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(1): 59–63.

Department of Health (2013). Healthy Ireland. A framework for improved health and wellbeing 2013-2025. Dublin: Department of Health.

Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (2012). Fit and Well. Changing Lives 2012-2022. A 10-year Public Health Strategic Framework for Northern Ireland. Belfast: DHSSPS.

Dietitians of Canada (1998). Eat Well, Live Well…For a Lifetime! A Resource Manual for Health Professionals.

Falaye, A.O. (2014). Human Life Span Development: A Basic Text in Development Psychology, Ibadan: Educational Research and Study Group.

Fernández-Mayoralas, G., Rojo-Pérez, F., and Rojo-Abuín, J. M. (2004). Components of the Residential Environment and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Elderly. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 18(1), 25–49.

Fortes, C., Mastroeni, S., Sperati, A., Pacifici, R., Zuccaro, P. and Francesco, F. (2013). Walking four times weekly for at least 15min is associated with longevity in a cohort of very elderly people. Maturitas, 74, 246-251.

Franke S. (2003). Social Engagement in Canada. Statistics Canada’s General Social Survey, Cycle 17. Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative and Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://policyresearch.gc.ca on 19th, April, 2016.

Gallo, L. C., Bogart, L. M., Vranceanu, A., and Matthews, K. A. (2005). Socioeconomic status, resources, psychological experiences, and emotional responses: A test of the reserve capacity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88: 386-399.

Hamrik, Z., Sigmundova, D., Kalman, M., Pavelka, J., and Sigmund, E. (2013). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Czech adults: Results from the GPAQ study. European Journal of Sport Science, 14:2, 193-198.

Han, K.H, Lee, Y.J, Gu, S.J, Oh, H. Han, J.H and Kim, K.B (2015). Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. Vol.13: 151-160

Havighurst, R. J. (1961). "Successful ageing". The Gerontologist, 1: 8–13.

Health Canada (2003). Economic Research Analysis Section, Policy Research Division, Strategic Policy Directorate, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada. Custom tabulations. Retrieved from http://policyresearch.gc.ca on 19th, April, 2016.

Health Canada Division of Ageing and Seniors (2002). “Healthy Ageing: Nutrition and Healthy Aging: Ministry of Public Works and Government Services, Canada. Retrieved from http://policyresearch.gc.ca on 19th, April, 2016.

Holmes, P. and Rossall, P. (2008). The Case for Healthy Ageing. Help the Aged,3: 32-41.

Jessica A. ( 2008). Older People and Wellbeing. Canada: IPPR Publications.

Kim, K.Y and Jung, Y.J (2006). The study on elements of successful ageing by physical health and economic status. Journal of Welfare of Aged, 34:31–54.

Ko D.S (2009). Development of the scale for healthy ageing. Journal of Korean Gerontology 29(1):117–34.

Latham N., Anderson C., Bennett D., and Stretton C. (2003). Progressive Resistance Strength Training for Physical Disability in Older People. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2: 7-11.

Lee, R.M, Draper M and Lee S. (2001). Social connectedness, Dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and Psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 48:310-8.

Martin, B. and Erik, E. (1999). Briner’s site about learning theories, USMA department of Mathematical sciences, Centre for Assessment and Program Evaluation (CAPE), United States Military Academy at West Point. Accessed on 27th may, 2016.

Massachusetts Intergenerational Network (2005). Social Engagement: A Multi Generational Organization.

Murtagh, E., Murphy, M., Murphy, N., Woods, C., and Lane, A. (2014). Stay Active: the physical activity, ageing and health study. Dublin: CARDI and Mary. Immaculate College.

National Advisory Council on Ageing (2001) Seniors in Canada: A Report Card. Ottawa: NACA, http://www.nacaccnta.ca. Retrieved on 19th April, 2016.

National Advisory Council on Ageing (2005). Ageing and Poverty in Canada. Seniors on the Margins Series. Ottawa: Government of Canada. http://www.naca-ccnta.ca. Retrieved on 19th April, 2016.

National Advisory Council on Aging. (2005). Seniors on the Margins: Seniors from Ethnocultural Minorities. Government of Canada. Ottawa, Ontario

National Council on Ageing and Older People, 2006. Draft Framework for the Collection of Information about the Older Population. Dublin: NCAOP.

National Institute on Ageing ( 2011). In National Institutes of Health (2011). Global Health and Ageing. National

Institutes of Health Publication Vol.11, 7737

National Institutes of Health (2011). Global Health and Ageing. National Institutes of Health Publication Vol.11, 7737

Nelson M., Rajeski W. and Blair S. (2007). Physical activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation

from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. American Heart

Association Journal,116: 1094– 1095.

O’Brien Cousins S. (2005). Ageism and Active Living: Recognizing Social Barriers to Older. Adult Participation, Alberta Centre for Active Living. http://www.alcoa.ca/research_u_docs/2005_04apr_en_update.pdf. Retrieved on 25th May, 2016

Ogunleye, S.K (2015). The impact of social and economic factors on the physical health adults. Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.14: 32-41.

Owen, T. and Bell, L. (2004) Quality of life in older age: messages from the growing older programme. London: Help the Aged in conjunction with ESRC

Paik, J.E and Choi, H.K.(2005). Successful aging according to Korean elderly: the definition, types, and predicting variables. Journal of Korean Home Management Association. 23(3):1–16.

Public Health Agency of Canada (2005). Report on Seniors’ Falls in Canada. Division of Aging and Seniors. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Canada.

Pyra K. (2003). Promoting Healthy Aging and Seniors’ Wellness: An Environmental Scan. Prepared for the F/P/T Committee of Officials (Seniors).

Quadagno, J. (2002). Aging and the Life Course, An Introduction to Social Gerontology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Ramage-Morin, P.L (2006). Successful Aging in Health Care Institutions. How Healthy Are Canadians? Health Reports, 16: 47-56. Ottawa: Ministry of Industry.

Reyes, C.A (2004). Risk factors for falling in older Mexican Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 14:417-422.

Richard, Schulz (2006). The Encyclopedia of Ageing: A-K. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 9–13. ISBN 978-0-8261-4843-2.

Rowe J. W and Kahn R. L (1998). Successful Ageing: New York: The MacArthur Foundation Study Pantheon Books.

Sana Loue and Martha Sajatovic (2008). Encyclopedia of Ageing and Public Health. Springer. pp. 79–81. ISBN 978-0-387-33753-1.

Seeman, T.A and Chen, X.B (2001). Risk and Protective Factors for Physical Functioning in Older Adults With and Without Chronic Conditions. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B Volume 57: Issue 3, Pp. S135-S144.

Seok, M.R (2005). The influencing of physical ability and sociability of the aged on the participation and satisfaction of leisure. PhD thesis, Keimyung University.

Shephard, R.J (2002). Gender, physical activity, and aging. London: CRC Press.

Shields, M. and Martel L. (2006). Healthy Living Among seniors. Health Reports Supplement, 8: 7-20.

UNECE, 2009. Mainstreaming Ageing. Policy Brief on Ageing No.1. New York: UNECE Working Group on Ageing.

United Nations (2011). General Assembly 66th Session, 3rd Committee on 8 November.

Victor, C., Scrambler, S., Bond, J. and Bowling, A. (2000). Being alone in later life: Loneliness, social isolation and living alone. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 10, 441-469.

Waters, J. (2008). Broke boomers may be forced to delay retirement. Market Watch of May 19.

World Health Organization (2002). Active Ageing: A Policy Framework. Geneva: WHO

World Health Organization (2003). The Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts. 2nd Edition. Geneva: WHO

World Health Organization (2005). Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization (2006). Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health: A framework to monitor and evaluate implementation. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization (2010). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization (2012). Resources: Global Activity Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) anaylsis guide.URL:www.who.int/chp/steps/resources/GPAQ_Analysis_Guide.pdf (accessed 16 March 2016).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.