THE ROLE OF AGE, JOB EXPERIENCE, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, AND LENGTH OF MARRIAGE IN WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT OF MARRIED NURSES
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of age, job experience, educational attainment and length of marriage in work-family conflict. We employed a cross-sectional survey design in the study. The participants were 181 (173 female and 8 male) nurses selected through the purposive sampling technique among married nursing staff at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The mean age was 35.39 years (SD = 8.65, range = 21-59 years). Work-family conflict was assessed using the 9 items measuring the interference between work and family of the Multidimensional Work-Family Conflict Scale. Five hypotheses were tested in the study. Percentages, means, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for analyses. Results indicated nurses with BSc degree and above manifested significantly lower strain-based conflict than those with Registered Nurses Certificate and Midwife Certificate holders. Furthermore, nurses with BSc degree and above reported significantly lower behaviour-based conflict than those with Registered Nurses Certificate and Midwife Certificate holders. In terms of overall score, nurses with BSc degree and above reported significantly lower work-family conflict than those with Registered Nurses Certificate and Midwife Certificate holders. In conclusion, educational attainment and length of marriage are important determinants of work-family conflict among nurses and, therefore, should be considered by employers of labour, clinicians, and family life educators in identifying interventions aimed at overcoming the problem of work-family conflict.
Allen, T., Herts, D., Bruck, C. & Sutton, M. (2000).Consequences associated with work- to family conflict: A review
and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278 –308.
Amazue L. O. (2013). Impact of work and family involvement on work-family conflict of non professional Igbo
Nigerian employees. African Journal of Business Management, 7(16),
Anafarta, N., & Kuruüzüm, A. (2012). Demographic predictors of work-family conflict for men and women: Turkish
Case. International Journal of Business and Management, 7 (13), 145-158
Aryee, S., Luk, V., Leung, A., & Lo, S. (1999). Role Stressors, inter-role conflict, and well- being: The Moderating
influence of spousal support and coping behaviors among employed parents in Hong Kong. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 259-278.
Awe, O. O. 1986. The Validity and Reliability of Marital Adjustment Scale. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of
Bakker, A.B., Killmer, C.H., Siegrist, J., & Schaufeli, W.B (2000). Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(4), 884-891.
Bartolome, F. (1972). Executives as human beings. Harvard Business Review, 50(6), 62-69.
Bellavia, G. M., & Frone, M. R. (2005). Work-family conflict. In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway, & M. R. Frone (Eds.)
Handbook of work stress (pp. 113-147). London: Sage.
Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Hospital restructuring stressors, work and family concerns and
psychological well-being among nursing staff. Community, Work & Family, 4(1), 49-62.
Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
Carnicer, M. P., Sánchez, A. M., & Pérez, M. P. (2004). Work-family conflict in a southern European country. Journal
of Managerial Psychology, 19, 466-489.
Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2005). Reducing teachers’ work-family conflict, from theory to practice. Journal of Career
Development, 32, 91-103.
Clements, R., & Swensen, C. H. (2000). Commitment to one’s spouse as a predictor of marital quality among older
couples. Current Psychology, 19 (2), 110–119.
DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dugan, A. G., Matthews, R. A., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2012). Understanding the roles of subjective and objective
aspects of time in the work-family interface. Community, Work & Family, 15(2), 149-172.
Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between
work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25: 178-199.
Frone, M. R. (2000). Work–Family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: The National Comorbidity Survey.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 888-895. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.888
Frone, M. R., Russel, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1997). Relation of work and family conflict to health outcomes: A four-year
longitudinal study of employed parents. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 70(4), 325-
Retrieved from http://www.wisepress.com/index.asp-Q-J-E-0963-1798-journal-of-occupationalamp- organizational-psychology,1224
Frone, M. R., Russell, M. & Cooper, M. L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: testing a model
of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 65-78.
Frone, M. R., Russell, M. & Cooper, M. L. (1992b). Prevalence of family-work conflict: Are work and family
boundaries asymmetrically permeable? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 723-729.
Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1997). Relation of work-family conflict to health outcomes: A four-year
longitudinal study of employed parents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(4), 325-
Goode, W. J. (1960). A Theory of Role Strain. American Sociological Review, 25(4): 483-496.
Gordon, J. R., & Whelan-Berry, K. S. (2007). The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement,
organizational culture and work outcomes for older working women, Journal of occupational health
psychology, 12, 350-364.
Grandey, A. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). The conservation of resources model applied to work- family conflict and
strain. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 54, 350-370.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of
Management Review, 10(1), 76-88.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2003). When work and family collide: Deciding between competing role demands.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90: 291-303.
Gutek, B. A., Searle, S., & Klepa, L. (1991). Rational versus gender role explanations for work-family conflict. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 76, 560-568.
Higgins, C. A., Duxbury, L. E., & Irving, R. H. (1992). Work family conflict in the dual career family. Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51(1), 51-75.
Judge, T. A., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1994). Job and life attitudes of male executives. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 79, 767-782.
Kahn, R. L., Byosiere, P., Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (1992). Stress in organizations. Palo Alto, CA, US:
Consulting Psychologists Press.
Kofodimos, J. R. 1993. Balancing act. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review
and directions fir organizational behavior human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology,
(2), 139-149. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/index.aspx
Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., Camp, S. D., & Ventura, L. A. (2006). The impact of work-family conflict on correctional
staff: A preliminary study. Criminology & Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 6, 371-387.
Lee, C., & Hong, K. (2005). Work-Family Conflict and Its Relationship With Social Support: A Study at Private
Educational Institutions in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Educational Research Journal, 20 (2), 221-244.
Madsen, S. R., Miller, D., & John, C. ( 2005). Readiness for organizational change: Does organizational commitment
and social relationships in the workplace make a difference? Human Resource Development Quarterly,
(2), 213-233. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291532-1096
Mjoli, T., Dywili, M., & Dodd, N. (2013). Demographic Determinants of Work-Family Conflict among Female Factory
Workers in South Africa. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 1 (1), 39-41
Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict and
family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400-410.
Osiki, J. O. 1995. Marital duration, age & childlessness as they affect marital happiness. Nigeria Journal of Clinical
and Counseling Psychology, 1, 34 – 42.
Parasuraman, S., Purohit, Y. S., & Godshalk, V. M. (1996). Work and family variables, entrepreneurial career
success and psychological well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 275-300.
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E.E., & Sweet, S. (2006). The work and family handbook: Multi-disciplinary
perspectives and approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Slater, P. E. (1963). On Social Regression. American Sociological Review, 28(3), 339-364.
Tement, S., Korunka, A., & Pfifer, A. (2010).Toward the assessment of the work−family interface: Validation of the
Slovenian versions of work−family conflict and work−family enrichment scales. Psihološka obzorja /
Horizons of Psychology, 19, 3, 53-74
Thomas, L. T. & Ganster, D. C. (1995). Impact of Family-Supportive Work Variables on Work-Family Conflict and
Strain: A Control Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 6–15.
Triplett, R., Mullings, J. L., & Scarborough, K. E. (1999). Examining the effect of work-home conflict on work-related
stress among correctional officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 371-385.
TUIK (2006). Aile Yapısı Araştırması (Family Structure Survey). Retrieved fromhttp://www.tuik.gov.tr/Kitap.do?metod=KitapDetay&KT_ID=11&KITAP_ID=16
Ugwu, L. (2009). Dual-Career Couples: Coping with Multiple Role Stress. Gender and Behaviour, 7 (1),
Viega, J. F. (1983). Toward understanding employee reluctance to participate in family friendly programs. Human
Management Review, 14, 337-351.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.