PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF SUICIDE MISSION AMONG NIGERIAN YOUTHS

R A Animasahun, V O ANIMASAHUN

Abstract


 

 

ANIMASAHUN, R.A. 

Department of Counselling and Human Development Studies

University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Phone: 08035796840; E-mail: [email protected]

And

 

ANIMASAHUN, V.O

Teacher Education Department,

University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

 

 

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is one of the significant biological and psychological risk factor for youth suicide. Substance use remains extremely widespread among today’s youths and is related to both suicide mission and depression.  This study therefore examined psychosocial predictors of suicide mission among Nigerian youths. The study adopted a descriptive survey design of the expost-facto  type. Three hundred (300) students participated in the study with a total of 108 (36.0%) males and 192 (64.0%) females. Their ages ranged between 12 and 20 years with a mean of 16.11 years.  Seven standardized instruments were used. Two research questions were raised and answered. The result indicated a significant joint and relative contributions of the independent variables to the prediction of suicide behaviour. Based on the findings of the result, it was recommended that more effective ways of working with the adolescents who are at risk of suicide or have potential to commit suicide needed to be designed. First, it is necessary to understand the unique characteristics of adolescents‘ physical, mental, and socio-psychological features. By understanding adolescents‘ unique features that may be related to suicidal risks, Counsellors, social workers and parents could work proactively to prevent suicide and make more effective interventions.

 

 


Keywords


Suicidal behaviour, Depression, Substance use, School achievement, Interpersonal relationship, Self esteem, Environmental factors.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30(1), 47-87.

Alloway, J. (2005). Adolescent constructions of the meaning of suicide. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(02), 1194B. (UMI No. 3166512)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Andrews, J. A., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1992). Suicidal attempts among older adolescents: Prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 655-622.

Aquinas, T. (1981). Summa theologica. Nortre Dame, In: Christian Classics.

Aronson, E. (1998). Dissonance, hypocrisy, and the self-concept. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. S. Mills (Eds.), Cognitive dissonance theory: Revival with revisions and controversies (pp. 21-36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ary, D. V., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Hops, H. (1999). Adolescent problem behaviour: The influence of parents and peers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 217-230.

Aspalan, A. H. (2003). Reflections on the experiences and needs of adolescents who have attempted suicide: A qualitative study. Journal of Social Work, 39(3), 251-269.

Augustine, A. (2003). City of God. New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc.

Bae, S., Ye, R., Chen, S., Rivers, P., & Singh, K. (2005). Risky behaviors and factors associated with suicide attempts in adolescents, Arch Suicide Res. 9, 193-202.

Barker, E. T., & Galambos, N. L. (2003). Body dissatisfaction of adolescent girls and boys: Risk and resource factors. Journal of Early Adolescence, 23, 141-165.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Barraclough, B. M., & Sheperd, D. M. (1994). A necessary neologism: The origin and uses of `suicide'. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior; 24 (2), 113-26.

Barron, S. L. (2000). Suicide in context: Elderly Chinese female suicide in San Francisco from 1987 through 1996. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(03), 1624B. (UMI No.9967083)

Basson, N., & Van den Berg, H. S. (2009, July). Exposure to stressors and access to resources as experienced by a group of adolescents. Paper presented at the 17th biennial South African conference of the Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Associated Professions, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Battin, M. P., & Mayo, D. J. (Eds.) (1980). Suicide: the philosophical issues. New York, NY: St. Martin‘s press.

Beautrais, A. L. (2000). Risk factors for suicide and attempted suicide among young people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34(3), 420–436.

Beck, A. T., Brown, G., Berchick, R. J., Stewart, B. L., & Steer, R. A. (1990). Relationship between hopelessness and ultimate suicide: A replication with psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 190-195.

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1987). Cognitive therapy and depression. New York: Guildord.

Becker, K., Mayer, M., Nagenborg, M., El-Faddagh, M., & Schmidt, M. (2004). Parasuicide online: Can suicide websites trigger suicidal behavior in predisposed adolescents? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 111-114.

Beekrum, R. (2008). A qualitative investigation into the risk and protective factors that mediate non-fatal suicidal behaviour in Indian adolescents. (Unpublished master‟s dissertation). University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

Beekrum, R., Valjee, S. R., & Collings, S. J. (2011). An emic perspective on the dynamics of non-fatal suicidal ideation in a sample of South African Indian women. South African Journal of Psychology, 41(1), 63-73.

Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. New York, New York: Pearson.

Berman, A. L., & Jobes, D. A. (1991). Adolescent Suicide: Assessment and intervention. Whahington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An international review, 46(1), 5-68.

Berry, J. W. (2006). Acculturative Stress. In Paul Wong & Lilian Wong (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Perspectives on Stress and Coping (pp.287-298). New York, New York: Springer.

Bertolote, J. M., & Fleischmann, A. (2002). A global perspective in the epidemiology of suicide. Suicidologi, 7(2), 6-8.

Best, K. (2008). The cumulative effects of victimization, community violence, and household dysfunction on depression and suicide ideation in a cohort of adolescent females. Dissertation Abstracts International, 70 (02), (UMI No. 3347314)

Body Image and Your Health (2004). The National Women‘s Health Information Center. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women‘s Health. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from http://www.4woman.gov/bodyimage/

Brausch, A.M. (2008). Evaluation of factors for depression and suicide in a community sample of adolescents: The role of body image, disordered eating, parent and peer support, and self-esteem. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69 (08), (UMI No. 3324866)

Brent D. A., Perper, J. A., Goldstein, C. E., Kolko, D. J., Allan, M. J., & Zelenak, J. P. (1988). Risk factors for adolescent suicide: A comparison of adolescent suicide victims with suicidal inpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 581-588.

Brent, D. A., Kolko, D. J., Wartella, M. E., Boylan, M. B., Mortiz, G., Baugher, M.,(1993). Adolescent psychiatric inpatients‘ risk of suicide attempt at 6-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 95-105.

Bridge, J. A., Goldstein, T. R., & Brent, D. A. (2006). Adolescent suicide and suicidal behaviour. Journal for Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3-4), 372-409.

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Research, 1(3), 185-216.

Brown, G.P. & Beck, A.T. (2002). Dysfunctional attitudes, perfectionism, and models of vulnerability to depression In G. Flett, & P. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp.231-252). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Burrows, S. (2005). Suicide mortality in the South African context. exploring the role of social status and environmental circumstances. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet.

Burrows, S., Vaez, M., & Laflamme, L. (2007). Sex-specific suicide mortality in the South African context: The role of age, race, and geographical location. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35, 133-139.

Burrows, S., Vaez, M., Butchart, A., & Laflamme, L. (2003). The share of suicide in injury deaths in the South African context: socio-demographic distribution. Public Health, 117, 3-10.

Burson, J. A. (1998). AIDS, sexuality and African American adolescent females. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 15(5), 357-365.

Caine, E. (1978). Two contemporary tragedies: Adolescent suicide/adolescent alcoholism. Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals,9, 4-11.

Call, K.T., Riedel, A. A., Hein, K., McLoyd, V., Peterson, A., & Kipke, M. (2002). Adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century: A global perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(1), 69-98.

Cantopher, T. (2003). Depressive illness: The curse of the strong. London, England: Sheldon Press.

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283.

Carver, C. S., Schreier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283.

Cassimjee, M. H., & Pillay, B. J. (2000). Suicidal behaviour in family practice: A pilot study. In L. Schlebusch & B.A. Bosch (Eds.), Suicidal behaviour 4: Proceedings of the 4th South African conference on suicidology (pp.49-55). Durban: Department of Medically Applied Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Natal.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2007a). 2007 National data files and documentation. Cdc.com. Retrieved February 04, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/YRBS/data/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2007b). 2007 National YRBS data users manual. Cdc.com, from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth /yrbs/pdf/2007_National_YRBS_Data_UsersManual.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009a). Understanding suicide: Fact sheet, 2009. Cdc.com, from http://www.cdc.gov/violence prevention/pdf/Suicide-FactSheet-a.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009b). WISQARS Leading causes of death Reports, 1999-2006. Cdc.com. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcaus10.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (1998). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, 47(SS-3)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (1999). Fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts among adolescents – Oregon, 1988-1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, 44(16), 312-315.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2000). Youth Risk Behavior Suveillance – United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49(SS05), 1-96.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2005). Healthy you! Health topics. Retrieved May 17, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/Healthy Youth/healthtopics/index.htm#programs

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2006). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summary, 55(SS-5), 1-108.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 57(SS-4).

Chapman, P. L., & Mullis, R. L. (2000). Ethnic difference in adolescent coping and self-esteem. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 16(2), 152–160.

Conason, A. H., Oquendo, M. A., & Sher, L. (2005a). Psychotherapy in the treatment of alcohol and substance abusing adolescents with suicidal behavior. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 18, 9-13.

Conason, A. H., Oquendo, M. A., & Sher, L. (2005b). Psychotherapy of alcohol adolescents with suicidal behavior. In J. Merrick & G. Zalsman (Eds.), Suicidal behavior in adolescents: An international perspective (pp. 325-330). London, England: Freund Publishing House.

Conger, K. J., Conger, R. D., & Scaramella, L. V. (1997). Parents, siblings, psychological control, and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 113-38.

Cornwell, B. (2003). The dynamic properties of social support: decay, growth and staticity, and their effects on adolescent depression. Social Forces, 81(3), 953-978. doi: 10.1353/sof.2003.0029

Crow, S., Eisenberg, M. E., Story, M., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2008). Are body dissatisfaction, eating disturbance, and body mass index predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents? A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 887-892.

Crunley, F. E. (1990). Substance abuse and adolescent suicidal behavior. Journal of American Medical Association, 263, 3051-3056.

Cyranowski, J. M., Frank, E., Young, E., & Shear, M. K. (2000). Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression A theoretical model. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(1), 21-27.

Da Costa, L. C., & Mash, B. (2008). A description of psychological factors associated with depression and anxiety in South African adolescents attending urban private practices in Johannesburg. South African Family Practices, 50(5), 51.

Dawes, A., & Finchilescu, G. (2002). What‟s changed? The ethnic orientations of South African adolescents during rapid political change. Childhood, 9(2), 147-165.

Deiner, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal strivings, and subjective wellbeing: a nomothetic and idiographic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(5), 926-935.

Deiner, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13, 81-84. DeLongis, A., & Newth, S. (1998). Coping with stress. Encyclopedia of mental health, 1, 583-593.

Docksai, R. (2009). Youth depression and suicide. Futurist, 43(1), 16-17.

Du Toit, M. M. (1999). The dynamics of contextual factors, personal factors, coping processes and psychological well-being among youth, with a view to programme development for capacity building. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom.

Dube, S. R., Anda, R. G., Whitfield, C. L., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., & Giles, W. H. (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 430-438.

Dunn, J., Slomkowski, C., Beardsall, L., & Rende, R. (1994). Adjustment in middle childhood and early adolescence. Links with earlier and contemporary sibling relationships. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 35, 491-504.

Dupont, R. L. (1984). Getting tough on gateway drugs. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide. New York, New York. Free Press.

Dusablon, T. L. (2009). First grade predictors of adolescent suicide-related ideation in a urban sample: A latent class approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69 (12). (UMI No. 3339707)

Dutton, K. A., & Brown, J. D. (1997). Global self-esteem and specific self-views as determinants of people‟s reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 139-148.

Ellison, G. T. H., De Wet, T., Ijsselmuiden, C. B., & Richter, L. (1996). Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 86, 1257-1262.

Engelbrecht, M. C., & Van Vuuren, S. J. E. J. (2000). Three communities‟ knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding suicide. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 36(1), 44-52.

Ensminger, M. E. (1990). Sexual activity and problem behaviors among black, urban adolescents. Child Development, 61, 2032-3046.

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York, New York: Norton and Company

Evans, E., Hawton, K., & Rodham, K. (2004). Factors associated with suicidal phenomena in adolescents: A systematic review of population based studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 957-979.

Fazakas-Dehoog, L. L. (2007). An intergrated cognitive-affective model of suicidal thinking and behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69 (05). (UMI No. NR39266)

Ferdinand, R. F., Nijs, P. F. A., Lier, P., & Verhults, F. C (2005). Latent class analysis of anxiety and depressive symptoms in referred adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88, 299-306.

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Festinger, L., & Aronson, E. (1960). The arousal and reduction of dissonance in social contexts. In D. Cartwright & A. Zander (Eds.), Group dynamics (pp. 214-231). Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson.

Fitzpatrick, K.K. (2005). Parameters of suicidal ideation: Efficacy of a brief preventive intervention for suicidal ideation and the course of suicidal ideation and its correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (03), 1715B. (UMI No. 3169262)

Flisher, A. J. (1999). The management of suicidal behaviour in adolescents. Specialist Medicine, July, 418-424.

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York, New York: Springer.

Fombonne, E. (1998). Suicidal behavior in vulnerable adolescents. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 154-159.

Forman, V. L. (2002). Correlates, classification, and clustering of disordered eating behavior in a nationally representative sample of United States high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (03), 1304B. (UMI No. 3046452)

Fox, K. (1997). A summary of research findings on body image motives: Why we look in the mirror. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from http://www.sirc.org/publik/mirror.html

Foxcroft, C., & Roodt, G. (2005). An introduction to psychological assessment in the South African context. (2nd ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press.

Fremouw, W., Callahan, T., & Kashden, J. (1993). Adolescent suicide risk: Psychological, problem-solving, and environmental factors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 23, 46-54.

Fresco, E. R. (1998). The effects of positive body image and healthy behaviors on adolescent suicide ideation and suicide behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (06), 1611 (UMI No. 1390813)

Frydenberg, E. (2008). Adolescent coping: Advances in theory, research and practice. London: Routledge.

Gall, T. L. (2006). Spirituality and coping with life stress among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 829-844.

Garrison, C. Z, Lewinsohn, P. M., Marsteller, F., Langhinrichsen, J., & Lann, I. (1991). The assessment of suicidal behaviour in adolescents. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 21, 217-230.

George, A. A. (2009). Risk and resilience in adolescent suicidal ideation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Gibelman, M. (1999). Ther search for identity: Defining social work – Past, present future. Social Work, 44, 298-310.

Goldsmith, S. K., Pellmar, T. C., Kleinman, A.M., & Bunney, W. E. (Eds.). (2003). Reducing suicide: a national imperative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Golub, A., & Johnson, B. D. (1994). The shifiting importance of alcohol and marijuana as gateway substances among serious drug abusers. Journal Studies of Alcohol, 55, 607-614.

Goode, E. (2001, August, 05). Dark side of dating. New York Times, pp.2.

Gould, M. S., Greenberg, T., Velting, D. M., & Shaffer, D. (2003). Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: a review of the past 10 years. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 386-405.

Gould, M. S., Wallenstein, S., Kleinman, M. H., O‘Carroll, P., & Mercy, J. (1990). Suicide Clusters: An examination of age-specific effects. American Journal of Public Health, 80(2), 211-212.

Govender, K., & Killian, B. J. (2001). The psychological effects of chronic violence on children living in South African townships. South African Journal of Psychology, 31(2), 1-11.

Grant, K. E., Compass, B. E., Thurn, A. E., McMahon, S. D., Gipson, P. Y., Campbell, A. J., Westerholm, R.I. (2006). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Evidence of moderating and mediating effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 257-283.

Greening, L., Stoppelbein, L., Fite, P., Dhossche, D., Erath, S., Brown, J., Young, L. (2008). Pathways to suicidal behaviors in childhood. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 35-45.

Gritz, E. R., & Carne, L. A. (1991). Use of diet pills and amphetamines to lose weight among smoking and nonsmoking high school seniors. Health Psychology, 10, 330-335.

Hall, A. S., & Torres, I. (2002). Partnerships in preventing adolescent stress: Increasing self-esteem, coping and support through effective counselling. Journal of Mental Counselling, 24, 97-109.

Halverson, J. A. (2005). Suicide and socioeconomic context in the Appalachian region. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (09). (UMI No. 3191223)

Hamilton, H. E. (2007). Ibsen‘s eschatology: Durkheim‘s suicide types in Ibsen‘s prose corpus. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (02). (UMI No. 3252787)

Hamrin, V., & Pachler, M. C. (2005). Child and adolescent depression: Review of the latest evidence-based treatments. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 43, 54-63.

Hankin, B. L., Mermelstein, R., & Roesch, L. (2007). Sex differences in adolescent depression: Stress exposure and reactivity models. Child Development, 78(1), 279-295.

Hare, I. (2004). Defining social work for the 21st century. The International Federation of Social Workers‘ revised definition of social work. International Social Work, 47, 407-424.

Hawton, K. & Catalan, J. (1987). Attempted suicide: A practical guide to its nature and management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haynal-Reymond, V., Jonsson, G. K., & Magnusson, M. S. (2005). Nonverbal communication in doctor-suicidal patient interview. In L. Anolli, S. Duncan, Jr., M. S. Magnusson, & G. Riva (Eds.), The hidden structure of interaction: From neurons to culture patterns (pp.142-148). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Hendin, H., Maltsberger, J. T., Lipschitz, A., Haas, A. N., & Kyle, J. (2001). Recognising and responding to a suicide crisis. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 31(2), 115-128.

Hines, A. M. (1997). Divorce-related transitions, adolescent development, and the role of the parent-child relationship: A review of the literature. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 375-388.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1988). The ecology of stress. Kent, Ohio: Hemisphere.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1998). Stress, culture and community. New York, New York: Plenum.

Huffard, M.R. (2001). Alcohol and suicidal behavior. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 797-911.

Hughes, R. A. Suicide grief work and pastoral counseling. American Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 6(2), 43-62.

Irwin, C. E., Igra, V., Eure, S., Millstein, S. (n.d.). Risk-taking behavior in adolescents: The paradigm. Retrieved June 23, 2004, from http://www.standfor. edu/~kcobb/femstudies/LectureOne.htm

Israelashvili, M., Gilad-Osovitzki, S., & Asherov, J. (2006). Female adolescents‟ suicidal behaviour and mothers‟ way of coping. Journal of Mental Health, 15(5), 533-542.

Ittel, A., Kretchmer, T., & Pike, A. (2010). Siblings in adolescence. Abington, UK: Psychology Press.

Jackson, S., & Rodriguez-Tomé, H. (1993). Adolescence and its social worlds. Sussex, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

James, R. K. (2008). Crisis intervention strategies (6th edition). Belmont, California: Thomson. Jessor, R. (1998). New perspectives on adolescent risk behaviour. In R. Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behaviour (pp.1-12). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jennifer, L. R., John, F., & Ashley, P. (2009). Adolescent suicide, gender, and culture: A rate and risk factor analysis. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 14(5), 402-414.

Joe, S. (2006). Implications of national suicide trends for social work practice with black youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 23(4), 458-471.

Johnson, P. G. (1996). A study of the sexual abuse of adolescents and their subsequent behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(04), 1847A. (UMI No.9625377)

Joiner, T. E., Brown, J. S., & Wingate, L. R. (2005). The psychology and neurobiology of suicidal behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 287-314.

Joiner, T. E., Sachs-Ericsson, N. J., Wingate, L. R., Brown, J. S., Anestis, M. d., & Selby, E. A. (2007). Childhood physical and sexual abuse and lifetime number of suicide attempt: A persistent and theoretically important relationship. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 539-547.

Judge, B., & Billick, S. B. (2004). Suicidality in adolescence: Review and legal considerations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22, 681-695.

Judge, S. L. (1998). Parental coping strategies and strengths in families of young children with disabilities. Family Relations, 47(3), 263-268. doi: 10.2307/584976

Kamal, Z., & Loewenthal, K. M. (2002). Suicide beliefs and behavior among young Muslims and Hindus in the UK. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 5(2). 111- 118.

Kandel, D. B. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190, 912- 914.

Kandel, D. B. (1980). Drug and drinking behavior among youth. Annual Review of Sociology, 6, 235-285.

Kandel, D. B., & Faust, R. (1975). Sequence and stages in patterns of adolescent drug use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 923-932.

Kandel, D. B., Kessler, R. C., & Margulies, R. Z. (1978). Antecedents of adolescent initiation into stages of drug use: A developmental analysis. In D. B. Kandel (Ed.), Longitudinal research on drug use: Empirical findings and methodological issues (pp. 73-99). New York: Wiley.

Kandel, D. B., Raveis, V. H., & Davies, M. (1991). Suicide ideation in adolescence: Depression, substance use, and other risk factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 289-309.

Kandel, D. B., Yamaguchi, K., & Chen, K. (1992). Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: Further evidence for the gateway theory. The Journal of the Study of Alcohol, 53, 447-457.

Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Borges, G., Nock, M. K., & Wang, P. S. (2005). Trends in suicide ideation plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States, 1990-1992 to 2001-2003. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(20), 2487-2495.

King, R., Schwab-Stone, M., & Flisher, A. (2001). A psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of youth suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,149, 41-44.

Kisch, J., Leino, V., & Silverman, M. M. (2005). Aspects of suicidal behavior, depression, and treatment in college students: Results from the Spring 2000

Knutt, A. D. (2007). Pathological perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression, eating disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in suicide prevention. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (03). (UMI No. 3258039)

Kostanski, M., & Gullone, E. (1998). Adolescent body image dissatisfaction: Relationships with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression controlling for body mass. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 244-262.

Kramers, A. L. (2000). Acculturation and disordered eating: An exploration of disordered eating practices across cultures. (Unpublished master‟s thesis). University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

Krug, E. G., Dahlberg, L. L., Meray, J. A., Zwi, A. B., & Lozano, R. (Eds), (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Kumar, G., & Steer, R. A. (1995). Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 339-346.

Ladha, K. S., Bhat, S. M., & D‘Souza, P. (1996). Suicide attempts in a general hospital in India: Their socio-demographic and clinical profile: Emphasis on cross- cultural aspects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94, 26-30.

Landheim, A. S., Bakken, K., & Vaglum. P. (2006). What characterizes substance abusers who commit suicide attempts? Factors related to Axis 1 disorders and patterns of substance use disorders. European Addiction Research, 12(2), 102- 108.

Larson, R. W., Wilson, S., & Mortimer, J. T. (2002). Conclusions: Adolescents‟ preparation for the future. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(1), 159-166. doi: 10.1111/1532-7795.00029

Larsson, B., & Ivarsson, T. (1998). Clinical characteristics of adolescent psychiatric inpatients who have attempted suicide. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 201-208.

Laubscher, L. R. (2003). Suicide in a South African town: A cultural psychological investigation. South African Journal of Psychology, 33 (3), 133-143.

Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2005). Practical research: planning and design. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall.

Lester, D. (1988). Suicide from a psychological perspective. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.

Lester, D. (1995). Estimating the true economic cost of suicide. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 80(3), 746.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1996). Adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology, 3, 25-46.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1998). Major depressive disorders in older adolescents: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 765-794.

Lewis, R., & Frydenberg, E. (2002). Concomitants of failure to cope: What we should teach adolescents about coping. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 419-431. doi:

Light, J. M., Grube, J. W., Madden, P. A., & Gover, J. (2003). Adolescent alcohol use and suicidal ideation: A nonrecursive model. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 705-724.

Liu, Y. (2002). The role of perceived social support and dysfunctional attitudes in predicting Taiwanese adolescents‟ depressive tendency. Adolescence, 37(148), 823-834.

Livaditis, M., Zaphiriadis, K., Fourkiot, A., Tellidou, C., & Xenitidus, K. I. (2002). Parental loss and problem behaviour in Greek adolescents: Students and teacher perspectives. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 60-65.

Lonnqvist, J. K. (1995). Suicide among female adolescents: Characteristics and comparison with males in the age group 13-22 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1297-1307.

Loots, S. (2008). The role of exposure to suicide and coping strategies in the suicidal ideation of adolescents. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Louw, A., Louw, D. A., & Ferns, I. (2007). Adolescence. In D. Louw & A. Louw (Eds.). Child and Adolescent Development (pp.278-347). Bloemfontein, University of the Free State: Psychology Publications.

Louw, D. A., Van Ede, D. M., & Ferns, I. (1998). Middle childhood. In D. A. Louw, D. M. van Ede & A. E. Louw (Eds.), Human Development (2nd ed). Cape Town, South Africa: Kagiso Tertiary.

Lucey, C. F. (1997). Family environmental factors as predictors of suicide probability among an outpatient adolescent population. Dissertation Abstracts International,58 (12), 4569A. (UMI No. 9818078)

Lynch, B.K. (2005). The Paradigm Debate. Retrieved from http://www.iltaonline.com/newsletter/01-2005may/latedialog-lynch.htm

Madu, S. N., & Matla, M. P. (2003). The prevalence of suicidal behaviours among secondary school adolescents in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 33(2), 126-132.

Magaya, L., Asner-Self, K. K., & Schreiber, J. B. (2005). Stress and coping among Zimbabwean adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 661-671.

Mangino, W. (2005). Serious delinquency among adolescents: Openness, social capital, and Durkheim‘s types of suicide. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (11). (UMI No. 3194686)

Mann, J. J., Waternaux, C., Hass, G. L., & Malone, K. M. (1999). Toward a clinical model of suicidal behavior in psychiatric patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(2), 181-189.

Marshall, K. J. (2006). Body image, depressed mood, weight concerns, and risky sexual behaviors among female adolescents. Dissertation International, 68 (10). (UMI No. 3286589)

Marttunen, M. J., Aro, H. M., Lonnqvist, J. K. (1993). Adolescence and suicide: a review of psychological autopsy studies. European Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 2, 10-18.

Marttunen, M. J., Henriksson, M. M., Aro, H. M., Heikkinen, M. E., Isometsa, E. T., & Mazza, J. J., & Reynolds, W. M. (1998). A longitudinal investigation of depression, hopelessness, social support, and major and minor life events and their relation to suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 28, 358-374.

Mashego, T. A. B., & Madu, S. N. (2009). Suicide-related behaviours among secondary school adolescents in the Welkom and Bethlehem areas of the Free State Province. South African Journal of Psychology, 39(4), 489-497.

Mashego, T. A. B., Peltzer, K., Williamson, G., & Setwaba, M. (2003). Suicide prevention: recognition and intervention for suicidal learners in school. Pretoria, South Africa: Health Behaviour Research Unit.

Matsumoto, T., Imamura, F., Chiba, Y., Katsumata, Y., Kitani, M., and Takeshima, T. (2008). Prevalences of lifetime histories of self-cutting and suicidal ideation in Japanese adolescents: Differences by age. Psychiatry &Clinical Neurosciences, 62(3), 362-364.

McKenry, P. C., Tishler, C., & Kelley, C. (1983). The role of drugs in adolescent suicide attempts. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 13, 166-175.

Méan, M., Righini, N., Narring, F., Jeannin, A., & Michaud, P. (2005). Substance use and suicidal conduct: A study of adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempt and ideation. Acta Paediatrica, 94(7), 952-959.

Meehan, S., Peirson, A., & Fridjhon, P. (2007). Suicide ideation in adolescent South Africans: The role of gender and coping strategies. South African Journal of Psychology, 37(3), 552-575.

Meel, B. L. (2003). Determinants of suicide in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 10, 71-76.

Mehlenbeck, R., Spirito, A., Barnett, N., & Overholser, J. (2003). Behavioral factors: Substance use. In A. Spirito & J. C. Overholser (Eds.), Evaluating and treating adolescent suicide attempters: From research to practice (pp. 113-146). New York: Academic Press.

Merton, R. (1957). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press.

Mhlongo, T., & Peltzer, K. (1999). Para-suicide among youth in a general hospital in South Africa. Curationis, 22(2), 72-76.

Middleman, A. B., Vazques, I., & Durant, R. H. (1998). Eating patterns, physical activity, and attempts to change weight among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 37-42.

Mittendorfer-Rutz, E., Rasmussen, F., & Wasserman, D. (2008). Familial clustering of suicidal behaviour and psychopathology in young suicide attempters. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(1), 28-36.

Moore, B. (2000). Teenage suicide: prevention is better than cure. N U E Comment, 4(2), 8-9.

Moos, R. H. (1994). Conceptual and empirical advances in stress and coping theory. Paper presented at the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology, Madrid, Spain.

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1994). Life stressors and social resources Inventory, Youth Form. Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Moos, R., & Schaefer, J. A. (1993). Coping resources and processes: Current concepts and measures. In L. Goldberg & S. Brenitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp.234-255). New York, New York: Free Press.

Moos, R., & Schaefer, J. A. (1993). Coping resources and processes: Current concepts and measures. In L. Goldberg & S. Brenitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp.234-255). New York, New York: Free Press.

Moosa, M. Y. H., Jeenah, F. Y., & Voster, M. (2005). Repeat non-fatal suicidal behaviour at Johannesburg Hospital. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 11(3), 84-88.

Moskowitz, H. J. K. (1993). Differentiating nonserious suicide attempters from serious suicide attempters in an inpatient psychiatric population. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (05), 2764B. (UMI No. 9320275)

Mouton, J. (1996). Understanding social research. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers.

National College Health Assessment Survey. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35, 3-13.

National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. (NIMSS) (2007). A profile of fatal injuries in South Africa (6th annual report). Retrieved from http://www.sahealthinfo.org/violence/national2007.pdf

National Institute of Mental Health (2004). Suicide facts and statistics. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/suicideprevention/suifact.cfm

National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH). (2003). In harm’s way: suicide in America. Retrieved May 21, 2003, from www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/harmaway.cfm

Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & French, S. A. (1996). Covariations of unhealthy weight loss behaviors and other high-risk behaviors among adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150(3), 304-308.

Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Dixon, L. B., & Murray, D. M. (1998). Adolescents engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors: Are they at risk for other health-compromising behaviors? American Journal of Public Health, 88(6), 952-955.

Nickelson, J. E. (2008). A modified obesity proneness model in the prediction of weight status among high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69(08). (UMI No.3326086)

Nishimura, S. T., Goebert, D. A., Mikler, S., & Caetano, R. (2005). Adolescent alcohol use and suicide indicators among adolescents in Hawaii. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 309-320.

Nock, M. K., & Banaji M. R. (2007). Prediction of suicide ideation and attempts among adolescents using a brief performance-based test. Journal of Consulting &Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 707-715.

Novins, D. K., Beals, J., & Mitchell, C. M. (2001). Sequences of substance use among American Indian adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(10), 1168-1174.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill.

O‘Donnell, J. A. & Clayton, R. R. (1982). The stepping stone hypothesis-Marijuana, heroin, and causality. Chemical Dependencies: Behavioral and Biomedical Issues, 4, 229-241.

O’Connor, R. C., & Sheeney, N. P. (2001). Suicidal behaviour. The Psychologist, 14, 20-24.

Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1986). Peer cluster theory: Drugs and the adolescent. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 17-22.

Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1990). Adolescent drug use—Findings of national and local surveys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 385-394.

Orbach, I., Stein, D., Shani-Sela, M., & Har-Even, D. (2001). Body attitudes and body experiences in suicidal in suicidal adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior,31, 237-249.

Orji, E. O., & Esimai, O. A. (2005). Sexual behavior and contraceptive use among secondary school students in Ilesha South West Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 25(3), 269-272.

Paley, B., Conger, R. D., & Harold, G. T. (2000). Parents‟ affect, adolescent cognitive representations, and adolescent social development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(3), 761-776.

Palmer, C. S., Revicki, D. A., Halpern, M. T., & Hatziandreu, E. J. (1995). The cost of suicide and suicide attempts in the United States. Clinical Neuro-pharmacology, 18(3), 25-33.

Parkar, S., Dawani, V., & Weiss, M. (2008). Gender, suicide, and the socio-cultural context of deliberate self-harm in an urban general hospital in Mumbai, India. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 32(4), 492-515.

Pearman, S. N., Thatcher, W. G., Valois, R. F., & Drane, J. W. (2000). Nutrition and weight management behaviors: Public and private high school adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 24(3), 220-228.

Pesa, J. A., Turner, L. W. (2001). Fruit and vegetable intake and weight-control behaviors among US youth. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(1), 3-9.

Pillay, A. L., & Wassenaar, D. R. (1997). Recent stressors and family satisfaction in suicidal adolescents in South Africa. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 155-162. doi: 10.1006/jado.1996.0073

Pillay, A. L., & Wassenaar, D. R. (1997). Recent stressors and family satisfaction in suicidal adolescents in South Africa. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 155-162. doi: 10.1006/jado.1996.0073

Plaaitjie, M. R. (2006). A comparison of coping strategies of ethnically diverse football players. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.

Portner, J. (1998). Increased suicide rate for blacks puts prevention efforts… Education Week, 17(29), 16.

Purselle, D. C., Heninger, M., Hanzlick, R., & Garlow, S. (2009). Differential association of socioeconomic status in ethnic and age-defined suicides. Psychiatry Research 167(3), 258-265.

Rafiroiu, A. C., Sargent, R. G., Parra-Medina, D., Drane, W. J., & Valois, R. F. (2003). Covariations of adolescent weight-control, health-risk and health-promoting behaviors. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(1), 3-14.

Ravndal, E., & Vaglum, P. (1999). Overdoses and suicide attempts: Different relations to psychopathology and substance abuse? A 5-year prospective study of drug abusers. European Addiction Research, 5(2), 63-70.

Recio Adrados, J. L. (1995). The influence of family, school, and peers on adolescent drug misuse. The International Journal of the Addictions, 30(11), 1407-1423.

Reddy, S. P., James, S., Sewpaul, R., Koopman, F., Funani, N. I., Sifunda, S.,… Omardien, R. G. (2010). Umthente Uhlaba Usamila-The 2nd South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town, South Africa: South African Medical Research Council.

Reddy, S. P., James, S., Sewpaul, R., Koopman, F., Funani, N. I., Sifunda, S.,… Omardien, R. G. (2010). Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town, South Africa: South African Medical Research Council.

Reddy, S. P., Panday, S., Swart, D., Jinabhai, C. C., Amosun, S. L., James, S.,… Van Borne, H. W. (2003). Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila – The first South African national youth risk behaviour Survey 2002. Cape Town, South Africa: South African Medical Research Council.

Reddy, S. P., Panday, S., Swart, D., Jinabhai, C. C., Amosun, S. L., James, S.,…. Van Borne, H. W. (2003). Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila – The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2002. Cape Town, South Africa: South African Medical Research Council.

Reynolds, W. M. (1988). Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire: Professional Manual. Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resource.

Reynolds, W. M. (1988). Suicide Ideation Questionnaire: Professional Manual. Odessa Florida: Psychological Assessment Resource.

Rosenbaum, M. (1993). The changing body image of the adolescent girl. In M. Sugar (Ed.), Female adolescent development (pp. 62-80). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Piacentini, J., Cantwell, C., Belin, T. R., & Song, J. (2000). The 18-month impact of an emergency room intervention for adolescent female suicide attempters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1081- 1093.

Rudolph, K. D. (2002). Gender differences in emotional responses to interpersonal stress during adolescence. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 30(4), 3-13.

Santelli, J. S., Brener, N. D., Lowry, R., Bhatt, A., & Zabin, L. S. (1998). Multiple sexual partners among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Family Planning Perspectives, 30(6), 271-275.

Santelli, L.S., Robin, L., Brener, N. D., & Lowry, R. (2001). Timing of alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviors among unmarried adolescents and young adults. Family Planning perspectives, 33(5), 200-205.

Schlebusch, L. (2005). Suicidal behaviour in South Africa. Scotssville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

Schlebusch, L., (2005). Suicidal behaviour in South Africa. Scotssville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal press.

Schonbeck, L. M. (n.d.). Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases: A focus on perceived level of risk. Retrieved July 19, 2005, from http://inside.bard.edu/academic/specialproj/darling/transition/group29/lisala.html

Schulenberg, J. L. (2007). Analysing police decision-making: Assessing the application to a mixed-method/mixed-model research design. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 10(2), 99-119.

Sebate, K. M. (1999). Some psychosocial variables related to parasuicide in the Ga-Rankuwa hospital. (Unpublished master‟s thesis). Medical University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Segal, D. L. (2009). Self-reported history of sexual coercion and rape negatively impacts resilience to suicide among women students. Death Studies, 33(9), 848- 855.

Shaffer, D. (1988). The epidemiology of teen suicide: An examination of risk factors. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 49(9),

Shafii, M., Carrigan, S., Whittinghill, J., R., & Derrick. A. (1985). Psychological autopsy of completed suicide in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1061-1064.

Shields, L. B. E., Hunsaker, D. M., Hunsaker, J. C. (2006). Adolescent and young adult suicide: A 10-year retrospective review of Kentucky medical examiner cases. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51(4), 874-879.

Slaby, A. E., & Garfinkel, L. F. (1996). No one saw my pain: Why teens kill themselves. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. London, England: SAGE Publications.

Spokas, M., Wenzel, A., Stirman, S. W., Brown, G. K., & Beck, A. T. (2009). Suicide risk factors and mediators between childhood sexual abuse and suicide ideation among male and female suicide attempters. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 467-470.

Stark, K., Joubert, G., Struwig, M., Pretorius, M., Van der Merwe, N., Botha, H…. Krynauw, D. (2010). Suicide cases investigated at the state mortuary in Bloemfontein, 2003-2007. South African Family Practice, 52(4), 332-335.

Steel, J., Sanna, L., Hammond, B., Whipple, J., & Cross, H. (2004). Psychological sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Abuse-related characteristics, coping strategies, and attributional style. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 785-801.

Steinberg, L. D., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83-110.

Stevens, G., & Lockhat, R. (1997). „Coca-Cola kids‟ – reflections on Black adolescents‟ identity development in post-apartheid South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 27(4), 250-255.

Stillion, J. M., McDowell, E. E., & May, J. H. (1989). Suicide across the life span: premature exits. New York, New York: Hemisphere.

Stolberg, R. A., Clark, D. C., & Bongar, B. (2002). Epidemiology, assessment, and management of suicide in depressed patients. In I. H. Gotlib, & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 581-601). New York: The Guilford Press.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Statistics (July 12, 2002). The National Household Survey on Drug Use Abuse Report: Substance Use and the Risk of Suicide Among Youths, from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/suicide/suicide.pdf

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (n.d). Suicide: Cost to the nation. Mentalhealth.samhsa.gov, from http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/suicideprevention/costtonation.asp

Thompson, E. A., Mazza, J. J., Herting, J. R., Randell, B. P., & Eggert, L. L. (2005). The mediating roles of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness on adolescent suicidal behaviors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35, 14-34.

Thompson, J. K., Coovert, M. D., Richards, K. J., Johnson, S., & Cattarin, J. (1995). Development of body image, eating disturbance and general psychological functioning in female adolescents: Covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18, 221- 236.

Tiggemann, M. (1994). Gender differences in the interrelationships between weight dissatisfaction, restraint, and self-esteem. Sex Roles, 30, 319-330.

Toolan, J. (1975). Suicide in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 29, 339-344.

Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). National strategy for suicide prevention: Goals and objectives for action. Rockville, MD: Author.

U.S. Public Health Service. (1999). The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent suicide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Public Health Service. (2001). National strategy for suicide prevention: Goals and objectives for action. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ulusoy, M. D., & Demir, N. O. (2005). Suicidal ideation in Turkish Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(6), 541-552.

Van Orden, K. A., Merrill, K. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2005). Interpersonal-Psychological precursors to suicidal behavior: A theory of attempted and completed suicide. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 1(2), 187-196.

Van Renen, L. J., & Wild, L. G. (2008). Family functioning and suicidal ideation/behaviour in adolescents: a pilot study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental health, 20(2), 111-121.

Vandecreek, L. (2009). The religious life during suicide bereavement: A description. Death Studies, 33(8), 741-761.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2000). Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government

Vogel, W., & Holford, L. (1999). Child psychiatry in Johannesburg, South Africa. A descriptive account of cases presenting at two clinics in 1997. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8, 181-188.

Wassenaar, D. R., Van der Veen, M. B. W., & Pillay, A. L. (1998). Woman in cultural transition: Suicidal behavior in South African Indian woman. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 28(1), 83-93.

Wassenaar, D. R., Van der Veen, M. B. W., & Pillay, A. L. (1998). Woman in cultural transition: Suicidal behavior in South African Indian woman. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 28(1), 83-93.

Way, N., & Robinson, M. G. (2003). A longitudinal study of the effects of family, friends, and school experiences on the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority, low-SES adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(4), 324-346.

Weiss-Gal, I. (2008). The Person-in-Environment Approach: Professional Ideology and Practice of Social Workers in Israel. Social Work, 53(1), 65-75.

Weller, E. B., Young, K. M., Rohrbaugh, A. H., & Weller, R. A. (2001). Overview and assessment of the suicidal child. Depression and Anxiety, 14(3), 157-163.

Wellesley College. (n.d.). Women’s Body Image. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from http://www.wellesley.edu/Health/BodyImage/

Wilcox, H. C., & Anthony, J. C. (2004). Child and adolescent clinical features as forerunners of adult-onset major depressive disorder: Retrospective evidence from an epidemiological sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 9-20.

Wild, L. G., Flisher, A. J., Bhana, A., & Lombard, C. (2004). Substance abuse, suicidality, and self-esteem in South African adolescents. Journal of Drug Education, 34(1), 1-17.

Williams, A. J. Risk Factors for selected health-related behaviors among American Indian adolescents: A longitudinal study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(03), 1602B. (UMI No. 3127762)

Windle, M. (2004). Suicidal behaviors and alcohol use among adolescents: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 29-37.

Wolff, E. (2008). Adolescent suicide and societal pressure. College of Saint Elizabeth Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 2(Fall2008), 9-16.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). Suicide prevention: Emerging from darkness. Who.int. Retrieved August 18, 2006, from http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section1199/Section1567/Section182 4_8075.htm

World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). Suicide prevention (SUPRE). Who.int, from http:/www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Suicide prevention and special programmes. Who.int, from http://www.who.int/mental_health/ prevention/suicide/country_reports/en/index.html

World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. Suicide prevention (SUPRE). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/ prevention/suicide/suicide prevention/en/index.html

Yang, B., & David, L. (2007). Recalculating the economic cost of suicide. Death Studies, 31(4), 351-361.

Zhang, J. & Song, Z. (2006). A preliminary test of the Strain theory of suicide. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science, 15(6), 487-489.

Zhang, J. (2005). Conceptualizing a Strain theory of suicide. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 19(11) 778-782.

Zhang, J., & Lester, D. (2008). Psychological tensions found in suicide notes: A test for the strain theory of suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 12, 67-73.

Zhang, J., Dong, N., Delprino, R., & Zhou, L. (2009). Psychological strains found from in-depth interviews with 105 Chinese rural young suicides. Archives of Suicide Research, 13(2), 185-194.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.